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  1. Spaced learning—the spacing effect—is a cognitive phenomenon whereby memory for to-be-learned material is better when a fixed amount of study time is spread across multiple learning sessions instead of crammed...

    Authors: Vanessa Foot-Seymour and Melody Wiseheart

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:5

    Content type: Original article

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  2. When reasoning about science studies, people often make causal theory errors by inferring or accepting a causal claim based on correlational evidence. While humans naturally think in terms of causal relationships...

    Authors: Colleen M. Seifert, Michael Harrington, Audrey L. Michal and Priti Shah

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:4

    Content type: Original article

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  3. The response time concealed information test (RT-CIT) can reveal that a person recognizes a relevant item (probe) among other, irrelevant items, based on slower responding to the probe compared to the irreleva...

    Authors: Till Lubczyk, Gáspár Lukács and Ulrich Ansorge

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:3

    Content type: Registered Reports and Replication

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  4. The sanitary-mask effect (Miyazaki and Kawahara in Jpn Psychol Res 58(3):261–272, 2016) is the finding that medical face masks prompt an image of disease and thus result in lower ratings of facial attractivene...

    Authors: Oliver Hies and Michael B. Lewis

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:1

    Content type: Original article

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  5. Given that being misinformed can have negative ramifications, finding optimal corrective techniques has become a key focus of research. In recent years, several divergent correction formats have been proposed ...

    Authors: Briony Swire-Thompson, John Cook, Lucy H. Butler, Jasmyne A. Sanderson, Stephan Lewandowsky and Ullrich K. H. Ecker

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:83

    Content type: Original article

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  6. Systemic racism is a scientifically tractable phenomenon, urgent for cognitive scientists to address. This tutorial reviews the built-in systems that undermine life opportunities and outcomes by racial categor...

    Authors: Mahzarin R. Banaji, Susan T. Fiske and Douglas S. Massey

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:82

    Content type: Tutorial Review

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  7. The role of implicit processes during police-civilian encounters is well studied from the perspective of the police. Decades of research on the “shooter bias” suggests that implicit Black-danger associations p...

    Authors: Vincenzo J. Olivett and David S. March

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:81

    Content type: Original article

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  8. While driving, dangerous situations can occur quickly, and giving drivers extra time to respond may make the road safer for everyone. Extensive research on attentional cueing in cognitive psychology has shown ...

    Authors: Benjamin Wolfe, Anna Kosovicheva, Simon Stent and Ruth Rosenholtz

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:80

    Content type: Original article

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  9. The spacing effect refers to the improvement in memory retention for materials learned in a series of sessions, as opposed to massing learning in a single session. It has been extensively studied in the domain...

    Authors: Joel J. Katz, Momo Ando and Melody Wiseheart

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:79

    Content type: Original article

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  10. Memories acquired incidentally from exposure to food information in the environment may often become active to later affect food preferences. Because conscious use of these memories is not requested or require...

    Authors: Léo Dutriaux, Esther K. Papies, Jennifer Fallon, Leonel Garcia-Marques and Lawrence W. Barsalou

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:78

    Content type: Original article

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  11. Human memory is malleable by both social and motivational factors and holds information relevant to workplace decisions. Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) describes a phenomenon where retrieval practice impai...

    Authors: Shaohang Lui, Christopher Kent and Josie Briscoe

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:77

    Content type: Original article

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  12. The term “continued influence effect” (CIE) refers to the phenomenon that discredited and obsolete information continues to affect behavior and beliefs. The practical relevance of this work is particularly app...

    Authors: Irene P. Kan, Kendra L. Pizzonia, Anna B. Drummey and Eli J. V. Mikkelsen

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:76

    Content type: Original article

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  13. Facial masks have become and may remain ubiquitous. Though important for preventing infection, they may also serve as a reminder of the risks of disease. Thus, they may either act as cues for threat, priming a...

    Authors: Anand Krishna, Johannes Rodrigues, Vanessa Mitschke and Andreas B. Eder

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:75

    Content type: Brief report

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  14. This study measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to test competing hypotheses regarding the effects of anger and race on early visual processing (N1, P2, and N2) and error recognition (ERN and Pe) dur...

    Authors: Adrian Rivera-Rodriguez, Maxwell Sherwood, Ahren B. Fitzroy, Lisa D. Sanders and Nilanjana Dasgupta

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:74

    Content type: Original article

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  15. All banknotes have security features which are intended to help determine whether they are false or genuine. Typically, however, the general public has limited knowledge of where on a banknote these security f...

    Authors: Frank van der Horst, Joshua Snell and Jan Theeuwes

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:73

    Content type: Review article

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  16. Expert radiologists can discern normal from abnormal mammograms with above-chance accuracy after brief (e.g. 500 ms) exposure. They can even predict cancer risk viewing currently normal images (priors) from wo...

    Authors: E. M. Raat, I. Farr, J. M. Wolfe and K. K. Evans

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:72

    Content type: Original article

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  17. Two experiments assessed how racial ambiguity and racial salience moderates the cross-race effect (CRE). In experiment 1, White and Black participants studied and identified the race of Asian, Black, Latino, a...

    Authors: Benjamin Uel Marsh, Deborah Revenaugh, Taylor Weeks and Hyun Seo Lee

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:71

    Content type: Original article

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  18. The intergenerational transmission of executive function may be enhanced or interrupted by culturally salient environmental stressors that shape the practice of executive function in the family. Building upon ...

    Authors: Su Yeong Kim, Jiaxiu Song, Wen Wen, Shanting Chen, Minyu Zhang, Jinjin Yan, Belem G. Lopez, Maria M. Arredondo and Ka I. Ip

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:70

    Content type: Original article

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  19. Past research has shown that when people are curious they are willing to wait to get an answer if the alternative is to not get the answer at all—a result that has been taken to mean that people valued the ans...

    Authors: Janet Metcalfe, Treva Kennedy-Pyers and Matti Vuorre

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:69

    Content type: Brief report

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  20. One reason for the persistence of racial discrimination may be anticipated dissimilarity with racial outgroup members that prevent meaningful interactions. In the present research, we investigated whether perc...

    Authors: Kerry Kawakami, Justin P. Friesen, Amanda Williams, Larissa Vingilis-Jaremko, David M. Sidhu, Rosa Rodriguez-Bailón, Elena Cañadas and Kurt Hugenberg

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:68

    Content type: Original article

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  21. Previous research has established a possible link between recognition performance, individuation experience, and implicit racial bias of other-race faces. However, it remains unclear how implicit racial bias m...

    Authors: Tobiasz Trawiński, Araz Aslanian and Olivia S. Cheung

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:67

    Content type: Original article

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  22. While attention has consistently been shown to be biased toward threatening objects in experimental settings, our understanding of how attention is modulated when the observer is in an anxious or aroused state...

    Authors: Andy Jeesu Kim, Hananeh Alambeigi, Tara Goddard, Anthony D. McDonald and Brian A. Anderson

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:66

    Content type: Original article

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  23. In radiological screening, clinicians scan myriads of radiographs with the intent of recognizing and differentiating lesions. Even though they are trained experts, radiologists’ human search engines are not pe...

    Authors: Mauro Manassi, Cristina Ghirardo, Teresa Canas-Bajo, Zhihang Ren, William Prinzmetal and David Whitney

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:65

    Content type: Original article

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  24. Systemic racism can have broad impacts on health in ethnoracial minorities. One way is by suppressing socioeconomic status (SES) levels through barriers to achieve higher income, wealth, and educational attain...

    Authors: Sarah K. Letang, Shayne S.-H. Lin, Patricia A. Parmelee and Ian M. McDonough

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:64

    Content type: Original article

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  25. Finding an unfamiliar person in a crowd of others is an integral task for police officers, CCTV-operators, and security staff who may be looking for a suspect or missing person; however, research suggests that...

    Authors: Viktoria R. Mileva, Peter J. B. Hancock and Stephen R. H. Langton

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:63

    Content type: Original article

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  26. Four studies involving 2552 White American participants were conducted to investigate bias based on the race-based phenotype of hair texture. Specifically, we probed the existence and magnitude of bias in favo...

    Authors: Benedek Kurdi, Timothy J. Carroll and Mahzarin R. Banaji

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:61

    Content type: Original article

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  27. For over 50 years, the satisfaction of search effect has been studied within the field of radiology. Defined as a decrease in detection rates for a subsequent target when an initial target is found within the ...

    Authors: Stephen H. Adamo, Brian J. Gereke, Sarah Shomstein and Joseph Schmidt

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:59

    Content type: Review article

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  28. Prior research has shown that interruptions lead to a variety of performance costs. However, these costs are heterogenous and poorly understood. Under some circumstances, interruptions lead to large decreases ...

    Authors: David Alonso, Mark Lavelle and Trafton Drew

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:58

    Content type: Original article

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  29. How does viewers’ knowledge guide their attention while they watch everyday events, how does it affect their memory, and does it change with age? Older adults have diminished episodic memory for everyday event...

    Authors: Maverick E. Smith, Lester C. Loschky and Heather R. Bailey

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:56

    Content type: Original article

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  30. In the present study, we investigated whether police officers’ performance in searching for unfamiliar faces in a video-based real-world task is predicted by laboratory-based face processing tests that are typ...

    Authors: Markus M. Thielgen, Stefan Schade and Carolin Bosé

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:54

    Content type: Original article

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  31. Faces judged as stereotypically Black are perceived negatively relative to less stereotypical faces. In this experiment, artificial faces were constructed to examine the effects of nose width, lip fullness, an...

    Authors: Heather Kleider-Offutt, Ashley M. Meacham, Lee Branum-Martin and Megan Capodanno

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:53

    Content type: Original article

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  32. Politically oriented “fake news”—false stories or headlines created to support or attack a political position or person—is increasingly being shared and believed on social media. Many online platforms have tak...

    Authors: Rebecca Hofstein Grady, Peter H. Ditto and Elizabeth F. Loftus

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:52

    Content type: Original article

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  33. We investigated whether standardized neuropsychological tests and experimental cognitive paradigms measure the same cognitive faculties. Specifically, do neuropsychological tests commonly used to assess attent...

    Authors: Melissa Treviño, Xiaoshu Zhu, Yi Yi Lu, Luke S. Scheuer, Eliza Passell, Grace C. Huang, Laura T. Germine and Todd S. Horowitz

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:51

    Content type: Original article

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  34. One criterion of adaptive learning is appropriate generalization to new instances based on the original learning context and avoiding overgeneralization. Appropriate generalization requires understanding what ...

    Authors: Nicole R. Hallinen, Lauren N. Sprague, Kristen P. Blair, Rebecca M. Adler and Nora S. Newcombe

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:50

    Content type: Original article

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  35. Identifying speech requires that listeners make rapid use of fine-grained acoustic cues—a process that is facilitated by being able to see the talker’s face. Face masks present a challenge to this process beca...

    Authors: Violet A. Brown, Kristin J. Van Engen and Jonathan E. Peelle

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:49

    Content type: Brief report

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  36. Face-identity processing declines with age. Few studies have examined whether face-identity processing abilities can be measured independently from general cognitive abilities in older adults (OA). This questi...

    Authors: Isabelle Boutet and Bozana Meinhardt-Injac

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:48

    Content type: Original article

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  37. Visual search in dynamic environments, for example lifeguarding or CCTV monitoring, has several fundamentally different properties to standard visual search tasks. The visual environment is constantly moving, ...

    Authors: Emily M. Crowe, Christina J. Howard, Iain D. Gilchrist and Christopher Kent

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:47

    Content type: Original article

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  38. Eye tracking is a useful tool for studying human cognition, both in the laboratory and in real-world applications. However, there are cases in which eye tracking is not possible, such as in high-security envir...

    Authors: Laura E. Matzen, Mallory C. Stites and Zoe. N. Gastelum

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:45

    Content type: Original article

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  39. Test anxiety is a major concern in education because it causes uncomfortable feelings in test-anxious students and may reduce the validity of exam scores as a measure of learning. As such, brief and cost-effec...

    Authors: Sarah J. Myers, Sara D. Davis and Jason C. K. Chan

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:44

    Content type: Original article

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  40. One of the many sources of information easily available to children is the internet and the millions of websites providing accurate, and sometimes inaccurate, information. In the current investigation, we exam...

    Authors: Kim P. Roberts, Katherine R. Wood and Breanne E. Wylie

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:42

    Content type: Original article

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  41. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has considerably heightened health and financial concerns for many individuals. Similar concerns, such as those associated with poverty, impair performance on cogn...

    Authors: Jihyang Jun, Yi Ni Toh, Caitlin A. Sisk, Roger W. Remington and Vanessa G. Lee

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:41

    Content type: Original article

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  42. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs have many benefits but also carry risks, such as adverse drug reactions, which are more prevalent in older adults. Because these products do not require the oversight of a physicia...

    Authors: Alyssa L. Harben, Deborah A. Kashy, Shiva Esfahanian, Lanqing Liu, Laura Bix and Mark W. Becker

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:40

    Content type: Original article

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  43. Research on the sharing of fake news has primarily focused on the manner in which fake news spreads and the literary style of fake news. These studies, however, do not explain how characteristics of fake news ...

    Authors: Amy J. Lim, Edison Tan and Tania Lim

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:39

    Content type: Original article

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