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  1. The term “continued influence effect” (CIE) refers to the phenomenon that discredited and obsolete information continues to affect behavior and beliefs. The practical relevance of this work is particularly app...

    Authors: Irene P. Kan, Kendra L. Pizzonia, Anna B. Drummey and Eli J. V. Mikkelsen

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:76

    Content type: Original article

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  2. Facial masks have become and may remain ubiquitous. Though important for preventing infection, they may also serve as a reminder of the risks of disease. Thus, they may either act as cues for threat, priming a...

    Authors: Anand Krishna, Johannes Rodrigues, Vanessa Mitschke and Andreas B. Eder

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:75

    Content type: Brief report

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  3. This study measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to test competing hypotheses regarding the effects of anger and race on early visual processing (N1, P2, and N2) and error recognition (ERN and Pe) dur...

    Authors: Adrian Rivera-Rodriguez, Maxwell Sherwood, Ahren B. Fitzroy, Lisa D. Sanders and Nilanjana Dasgupta

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:74

    Content type: Original article

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  4. All banknotes have security features which are intended to help determine whether they are false or genuine. Typically, however, the general public has limited knowledge of where on a banknote these security f...

    Authors: Frank van der Horst, Joshua Snell and Jan Theeuwes

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:73

    Content type: Review article

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  5. Expert radiologists can discern normal from abnormal mammograms with above-chance accuracy after brief (e.g. 500 ms) exposure. They can even predict cancer risk viewing currently normal images (priors) from wo...

    Authors: E. M. Raat, I. Farr, J. M. Wolfe and K. K. Evans

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:72

    Content type: Original article

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  6. Two experiments assessed how racial ambiguity and racial salience moderates the cross-race effect (CRE). In experiment 1, White and Black participants studied and identified the race of Asian, Black, Latino, a...

    Authors: Benjamin Uel Marsh, Deborah Revenaugh, Taylor Weeks and Hyun Seo Lee

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:71

    Content type: Original article

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  7. The intergenerational transmission of executive function may be enhanced or interrupted by culturally salient environmental stressors that shape the practice of executive function in the family. Building upon ...

    Authors: Su Yeong Kim, Jiaxiu Song, Wen Wen, Shanting Chen, Minyu Zhang, Jinjin Yan, Belem G. Lopez, Maria M. Arredondo and Ka I. Ip

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:70

    Content type: Original article

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  8. Past research has shown that when people are curious they are willing to wait to get an answer if the alternative is to not get the answer at all—a result that has been taken to mean that people valued the ans...

    Authors: Janet Metcalfe, Treva Kennedy-Pyers and Matti Vuorre

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:69

    Content type: Brief report

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  9. One reason for the persistence of racial discrimination may be anticipated dissimilarity with racial outgroup members that prevent meaningful interactions. In the present research, we investigated whether perc...

    Authors: Kerry Kawakami, Justin P. Friesen, Amanda Williams, Larissa Vingilis-Jaremko, David M. Sidhu, Rosa Rodriguez-Bailón, Elena Cañadas and Kurt Hugenberg

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:68

    Content type: Original article

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  10. Previous research has established a possible link between recognition performance, individuation experience, and implicit racial bias of other-race faces. However, it remains unclear how implicit racial bias m...

    Authors: Tobiasz Trawiński, Araz Aslanian and Olivia S. Cheung

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:67

    Content type: Original article

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  11. While attention has consistently been shown to be biased toward threatening objects in experimental settings, our understanding of how attention is modulated when the observer is in an anxious or aroused state...

    Authors: Andy Jeesu Kim, Hananeh Alambeigi, Tara Goddard, Anthony D. McDonald and Brian A. Anderson

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:66

    Content type: Original article

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  12. In radiological screening, clinicians scan myriads of radiographs with the intent of recognizing and differentiating lesions. Even though they are trained experts, radiologists’ human search engines are not pe...

    Authors: Mauro Manassi, Cristina Ghirardo, Teresa Canas-Bajo, Zhihang Ren, William Prinzmetal and David Whitney

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:65

    Content type: Original article

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  13. Systemic racism can have broad impacts on health in ethnoracial minorities. One way is by suppressing socioeconomic status (SES) levels through barriers to achieve higher income, wealth, and educational attain...

    Authors: Sarah K. Letang, Shayne S.-H. Lin, Patricia A. Parmelee and Ian M. McDonough

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:64

    Content type: Original article

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  14. Finding an unfamiliar person in a crowd of others is an integral task for police officers, CCTV-operators, and security staff who may be looking for a suspect or missing person; however, research suggests that...

    Authors: Viktoria R. Mileva, Peter J. B. Hancock and Stephen R. H. Langton

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:63

    Content type: Original article

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  15. Four studies involving 2552 White American participants were conducted to investigate bias based on the race-based phenotype of hair texture. Specifically, we probed the existence and magnitude of bias in favo...

    Authors: Benedek Kurdi, Timothy J. Carroll and Mahzarin R. Banaji

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:61

    Content type: Original article

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  16. For over 50 years, the satisfaction of search effect has been studied within the field of radiology. Defined as a decrease in detection rates for a subsequent target when an initial target is found within the ...

    Authors: Stephen H. Adamo, Brian J. Gereke, Sarah Shomstein and Joseph Schmidt

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:59

    Content type: Review article

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  17. Prior research has shown that interruptions lead to a variety of performance costs. However, these costs are heterogenous and poorly understood. Under some circumstances, interruptions lead to large decreases ...

    Authors: David Alonso, Mark Lavelle and Trafton Drew

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:58

    Content type: Original article

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  18. How does viewers’ knowledge guide their attention while they watch everyday events, how does it affect their memory, and does it change with age? Older adults have diminished episodic memory for everyday event...

    Authors: Maverick E. Smith, Lester C. Loschky and Heather R. Bailey

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:56

    Content type: Original article

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  19. In the present study, we investigated whether police officers’ performance in searching for unfamiliar faces in a video-based real-world task is predicted by laboratory-based face processing tests that are typ...

    Authors: Markus M. Thielgen, Stefan Schade and Carolin Bosé

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:54

    Content type: Original article

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  20. Faces judged as stereotypically Black are perceived negatively relative to less stereotypical faces. In this experiment, artificial faces were constructed to examine the effects of nose width, lip fullness, an...

    Authors: Heather Kleider-Offutt, Ashley M. Meacham, Lee Branum-Martin and Megan Capodanno

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:53

    Content type: Original article

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  21. Politically oriented “fake news”—false stories or headlines created to support or attack a political position or person—is increasingly being shared and believed on social media. Many online platforms have tak...

    Authors: Rebecca Hofstein Grady, Peter H. Ditto and Elizabeth F. Loftus

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:52

    Content type: Original article

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  22. We investigated whether standardized neuropsychological tests and experimental cognitive paradigms measure the same cognitive faculties. Specifically, do neuropsychological tests commonly used to assess attent...

    Authors: Melissa Treviño, Xiaoshu Zhu, Yi Yi Lu, Luke S. Scheuer, Eliza Passell, Grace C. Huang, Laura T. Germine and Todd S. Horowitz

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:51

    Content type: Original article

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  23. One criterion of adaptive learning is appropriate generalization to new instances based on the original learning context and avoiding overgeneralization. Appropriate generalization requires understanding what ...

    Authors: Nicole R. Hallinen, Lauren N. Sprague, Kristen P. Blair, Rebecca M. Adler and Nora S. Newcombe

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:50

    Content type: Original article

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  24. Identifying speech requires that listeners make rapid use of fine-grained acoustic cues—a process that is facilitated by being able to see the talker’s face. Face masks present a challenge to this process beca...

    Authors: Violet A. Brown, Kristin J. Van Engen and Jonathan E. Peelle

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:49

    Content type: Brief report

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  25. Face-identity processing declines with age. Few studies have examined whether face-identity processing abilities can be measured independently from general cognitive abilities in older adults (OA). This questi...

    Authors: Isabelle Boutet and Bozana Meinhardt-Injac

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:48

    Content type: Original article

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  26. Visual search in dynamic environments, for example lifeguarding or CCTV monitoring, has several fundamentally different properties to standard visual search tasks. The visual environment is constantly moving, ...

    Authors: Emily M. Crowe, Christina J. Howard, Iain D. Gilchrist and Christopher Kent

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:47

    Content type: Original article

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  27. Eye tracking is a useful tool for studying human cognition, both in the laboratory and in real-world applications. However, there are cases in which eye tracking is not possible, such as in high-security envir...

    Authors: Laura E. Matzen, Mallory C. Stites and Zoe. N. Gastelum

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:45

    Content type: Original article

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  28. Test anxiety is a major concern in education because it causes uncomfortable feelings in test-anxious students and may reduce the validity of exam scores as a measure of learning. As such, brief and cost-effec...

    Authors: Sarah J. Myers, Sara D. Davis and Jason C. K. Chan

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:44

    Content type: Original article

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  29. One of the many sources of information easily available to children is the internet and the millions of websites providing accurate, and sometimes inaccurate, information. In the current investigation, we exam...

    Authors: Kim P. Roberts, Katherine R. Wood and Breanne E. Wylie

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:42

    Content type: Original article

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  30. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has considerably heightened health and financial concerns for many individuals. Similar concerns, such as those associated with poverty, impair performance on cogn...

    Authors: Jihyang Jun, Yi Ni Toh, Caitlin A. Sisk, Roger W. Remington and Vanessa G. Lee

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:41

    Content type: Original article

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  31. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs have many benefits but also carry risks, such as adverse drug reactions, which are more prevalent in older adults. Because these products do not require the oversight of a physicia...

    Authors: Alyssa L. Harben, Deborah A. Kashy, Shiva Esfahanian, Lanqing Liu, Laura Bix and Mark W. Becker

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:40

    Content type: Original article

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  32. Research on the sharing of fake news has primarily focused on the manner in which fake news spreads and the literary style of fake news. These studies, however, do not explain how characteristics of fake news ...

    Authors: Amy J. Lim, Edison Tan and Tania Lim

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:39

    Content type: Original article

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  33. Repeated information is often perceived as more truthful than new information. This finding is known as the illusory truth effect, and it is typically thought to occur because repetition increases processing f...

    Authors: Aumyo Hassan and Sarah J. Barber

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:38

    Content type: Original article

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  34. People often need to update representations of information upon discovering them to be incorrect, a process that can be interrupted by competing cognitive demands. Because anxiety and stress can impair cogniti...

    Authors: Vera E. Newman, Hannah F. Yee, Adrian R. Walker, Metaxia Toumbelekis and Steven B. Most

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:36

    Content type: Original article

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  35. Attention is known to play an important role in shaping the behaviour of both human and animal foragers. Here, in three experiments, we built on previous interactive tasks to create an online foraging game for...

    Authors: Ian M. Thornton, Jérôme Tagu, Sunčica Zdravković and Árni Kristjánsson

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:35

    Content type: Original article

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  36. The cognitive load of many everyday life tasks exceeds known limitations of short-term memory. One strategy to compensate for information overload is cognitive offloading which refers to the externalization of...

    Authors: Hauke S. Meyerhoff, Sandra Grinschgl, Frank Papenmeier and Sam J. Gilbert

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:34

    Content type: Original article

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  37. When searching for a known target, mental representations of target features, or templates, guide attention towards matching objects and facilitate recognition. When only distractor features are known, distrac...

    Authors: Alex Muhl-Richardson, Maximilian G. Parker, Sergio A. Recio, Maria Tortosa-Molina, Jennifer L. Daffron and Greg J. Davis

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:33

    Content type: Original article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:60

  38. A major problem in human cognition is to understand how newly acquired information and long-standing beliefs about the environment combine to make decisions and plan behaviors. Over-dependence on long-standing...

    Authors: Gwendolyn L. Rehrig, Michelle Cheng, Brian C. McMahan and Rahul Shome

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:32

    Content type: Original article

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  39. In co-located, multi-user settings such as multi-touch tables, user interfaces need to be accessible from multiple viewpoints. In this project, we investigated how this goal can be achieved for depictions of d...

    Authors: Tjark Müller, Friedrich W. Hesse and Hauke S. Meyerhoff

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:31

    Content type: Original article

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  40. Human operators often experience large fluctuations in cognitive workload over seconds timescales that can lead to sub-optimal performance, ranging from overload to neglect. Adaptive automation could potential...

    Authors: Udo Boehm, Dora Matzke, Matthew Gretton, Spencer Castro, Joel Cooper, Michael Skinner, David Strayer and Andrew Heathcote

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:30

    Content type: Original article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:62

  41. How do scientists generate and weight candidate queries for hypothesis testing, and how does learning from observations or experimental data impact query selection? Field sciences offer a compelling context to...

    Authors: Cristina G. Wilson, Feifei Qian, Douglas J. Jerolmack, Sonia Roberts, Jonathan Ham, Daniel Koditschek and Thomas F. Shipley

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:29

    Content type: Original article

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  42. Today’s citizens are expected to use evidence, frequently presented in the media, to inform decisions about health, behavior, and public policy. However, science misinformation is ubiquitous in the media, maki...

    Authors: Audrey L. Michal, Yiwen Zhong and Priti Shah

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:28

    Content type: Original article

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  43. Camouflage-breaking is a special case of visual search where an object of interest, or target, can be hard to distinguish from the background even when in plain view. We have previously shown that naive, non-p...

    Authors: Fallon Branch, Allison JoAnna Lewis, Isabella Noel Santana and Jay Hegdé

    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:27

    Content type: Brief report

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