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  1. In three experiments, we sought to understand when and why people use an algorithm decision aid. Distinct from recent approaches, we explicitly enumerate the algorithm’s accuracy while also providing summary f...

    Authors: Garston Liang, Jennifer F. Sloane, Christopher Donkin and Ben R. Newell
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:14
  2. Face perception is considered a remarkable visual ability in humans that is subject to a prolonged developmental trajectory. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, mask-wearing has become mandatory for adults a...

    Authors: Andreja Stajduhar, Tzvi Ganel, Galia Avidan, R. Shayna Rosenbaum and Erez Freud
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:9
  3. We report results from a driving simulator paradigm we developed to test the fine temporal effects of verbal tasks on simultaneous tracking performance. A total of 74 undergraduate students participated in two...

    Authors: Jonathan C. Rann and Amit Almor
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:12
  4. Visuo-spatial reasoning tests, such as Raven's matrices, Cattell's culture-fair test, or various subtests of the Wechsler scales, are frequently used to estimate intelligence scores in the context of inter-rac...

    Authors: Corentin Gonthier
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:11
  5. Using an online, medical image labeling app, 803 individuals rated images of skin lesions as either "melanoma" (skin cancer) or "nevus" (a skin mole). Each block consisted of 80 images. Blocks could have high ...

    Authors: Jeremy M. Wolfe
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:10
  6. Much research has found that implicit associations between Black male faces and aggression affect dispositional judgments and decision-making, but there have been few investigations into downstream effects on ...

    Authors: William Blake Erickson, Arianna Wright and Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:8
  7. Upon hearing someone’s speech, a listener can access information such as the speaker’s age, gender identity, socioeconomic status, and their linguistic background. However, an open question is whether living i...

    Authors: Ethan Kutlu, Mehrgol Tiv, Stefanie Wulff and Debra Titone
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:7
  8. Facial attractiveness in humans signals an individual’s genetic condition, underlying physiology and health status, serving as a cue to one’s mate value. The practice of wearing face masks for prevention of tr...

    Authors: Farid Pazhoohi and Alan Kingstone
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:6
  9. Spaced learning—the spacing effect—is a cognitive phenomenon whereby memory for to-be-learned material is better when a fixed amount of study time is spread across multiple learning sessions instead of crammed...

    Authors: Vanessa Foot-Seymour and Melody Wiseheart
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:5
  10. When reasoning about science studies, people often make causal theory errors by inferring or accepting a causal claim based on correlational evidence. While humans naturally think in terms of causal relationships...

    Authors: Colleen M. Seifert, Michael Harrington, Audrey L. Michal and Priti Shah
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:4
  11. The response time concealed information test (RT-CIT) can reveal that a person recognizes a relevant item (probe) among other, irrelevant items, based on slower responding to the probe compared to the irreleva...

    Authors: Till Lubczyk, Gáspár Lukács and Ulrich Ansorge
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:3
  12. The sanitary-mask effect (Miyazaki and Kawahara in Jpn Psychol Res 58(3):261–272, 2016) is the finding that medical face masks prompt an image of disease and thus result in lower ratings of facial attractivene...

    Authors: Oliver Hies and Michael B. Lewis
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:1
  13. Given that being misinformed can have negative ramifications, finding optimal corrective techniques has become a key focus of research. In recent years, several divergent correction formats have been proposed ...

    Authors: Briony Swire-Thompson, John Cook, Lucy H. Butler, Jasmyne A. Sanderson, Stephan Lewandowsky and Ullrich K. H. Ecker
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:83
  14. Systemic racism is a scientifically tractable phenomenon, urgent for cognitive scientists to address. This tutorial reviews the built-in systems that undermine life opportunities and outcomes by racial categor...

    Authors: Mahzarin R. Banaji, Susan T. Fiske and Douglas S. Massey
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:82
  15. The role of implicit processes during police-civilian encounters is well studied from the perspective of the police. Decades of research on the “shooter bias” suggests that implicit Black-danger associations p...

    Authors: Vincenzo J. Olivett and David S. March
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:81
  16. While driving, dangerous situations can occur quickly, and giving drivers extra time to respond may make the road safer for everyone. Extensive research on attentional cueing in cognitive psychology has shown ...

    Authors: Benjamin Wolfe, Anna Kosovicheva, Simon Stent and Ruth Rosenholtz
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:80
  17. The spacing effect refers to the improvement in memory retention for materials learned in a series of sessions, as opposed to massing learning in a single session. It has been extensively studied in the domain...

    Authors: Joel J. Katz, Momo Ando and Melody Wiseheart
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:79
  18. Memories acquired incidentally from exposure to food information in the environment may often become active to later affect food preferences. Because conscious use of these memories is not requested or require...

    Authors: Léo Dutriaux, Esther K. Papies, Jennifer Fallon, Leonel Garcia-Marques and Lawrence W. Barsalou
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:78
  19. Human memory is malleable by both social and motivational factors and holds information relevant to workplace decisions. Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) describes a phenomenon where retrieval practice impai...

    Authors: Shaohang Liu, Christopher Kent and Josie Briscoe
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:77

    The Correction to this article has been published in Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2022 7:43

  20. The term “continued influence effect” (CIE) refers to the phenomenon that discredited and obsolete information continues to affect behavior and beliefs. The practical relevance of this work is particularly app...

    Authors: Irene P. Kan, Kendra L. Pizzonia, Anna B. Drummey and Eli J. V. Mikkelsen
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:76
  21. Facial masks have become and may remain ubiquitous. Though important for preventing infection, they may also serve as a reminder of the risks of disease. Thus, they may either act as cues for threat, priming a...

    Authors: Anand Krishna, Johannes Rodrigues, Vanessa Mitschke and Andreas B. Eder
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:75
  22. This study measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to test competing hypotheses regarding the effects of anger and race on early visual processing (N1, P2, and N2) and error recognition (ERN and Pe) dur...

    Authors: Adrian Rivera-Rodriguez, Maxwell Sherwood, Ahren B. Fitzroy, Lisa D. Sanders and Nilanjana Dasgupta
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:74
  23. All banknotes have security features which are intended to help determine whether they are false or genuine. Typically, however, the general public has limited knowledge of where on a banknote these security f...

    Authors: Frank van der Horst, Joshua Snell and Jan Theeuwes
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:73
  24. Expert radiologists can discern normal from abnormal mammograms with above-chance accuracy after brief (e.g. 500 ms) exposure. They can even predict cancer risk viewing currently normal images (priors) from wo...

    Authors: E. M. Raat, I. Farr, J. M. Wolfe and K. K. Evans
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:72
  25. Two experiments assessed how racial ambiguity and racial salience moderates the cross-race effect (CRE). In experiment 1, White and Black participants studied and identified the race of Asian, Black, Latino, a...

    Authors: Benjamin Uel Marsh, Deborah Revenaugh, Taylor Weeks and Hyun Seo Lee
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:71
  26. The intergenerational transmission of executive function may be enhanced or interrupted by culturally salient environmental stressors that shape the practice of executive function in the family. Building upon ...

    Authors: Su Yeong Kim, Jiaxiu Song, Wen Wen, Shanting Chen, Minyu Zhang, Jinjin Yan, Belem G. Lopez, Maria M. Arredondo and Ka I. Ip
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:70
  27. Past research has shown that when people are curious they are willing to wait to get an answer if the alternative is to not get the answer at all—a result that has been taken to mean that people valued the ans...

    Authors: Janet Metcalfe, Treva Kennedy-Pyers and Matti Vuorre
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:69
  28. One reason for the persistence of racial discrimination may be anticipated dissimilarity with racial outgroup members that prevent meaningful interactions. In the present research, we investigated whether perc...

    Authors: Kerry Kawakami, Justin P. Friesen, Amanda Williams, Larissa Vingilis-Jaremko, David M. Sidhu, Rosa Rodriguez-Bailón, Elena Cañadas and Kurt Hugenberg
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:68
  29. Previous research has established a possible link between recognition performance, individuation experience, and implicit racial bias of other-race faces. However, it remains unclear how implicit racial bias m...

    Authors: Tobiasz Trawiński, Araz Aslanian and Olivia S. Cheung
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:67
  30. While attention has consistently been shown to be biased toward threatening objects in experimental settings, our understanding of how attention is modulated when the observer is in an anxious or aroused state...

    Authors: Andy Jeesu Kim, Hananeh Alambeigi, Tara Goddard, Anthony D. McDonald and Brian A. Anderson
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:66
  31. In radiological screening, clinicians scan myriads of radiographs with the intent of recognizing and differentiating lesions. Even though they are trained experts, radiologists’ human search engines are not pe...

    Authors: Mauro Manassi, Cristina Ghirardo, Teresa Canas-Bajo, Zhihang Ren, William Prinzmetal and David Whitney
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:65
  32. Systemic racism can have broad impacts on health in ethnoracial minorities. One way is by suppressing socioeconomic status (SES) levels through barriers to achieve higher income, wealth, and educational attain...

    Authors: Sarah K. Letang, Shayne S.-H. Lin, Patricia A. Parmelee and Ian M. McDonough
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:64
  33. Finding an unfamiliar person in a crowd of others is an integral task for police officers, CCTV-operators, and security staff who may be looking for a suspect or missing person; however, research suggests that...

    Authors: Viktoria R. Mileva, Peter J. B. Hancock and Stephen R. H. Langton
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:63
  34. Four studies involving 2552 White American participants were conducted to investigate bias based on the race-based phenotype of hair texture. Specifically, we probed the existence and magnitude of bias in favo...

    Authors: Benedek Kurdi, Timothy J. Carroll and Mahzarin R. Banaji
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:61
  35. For over 50 years, the satisfaction of search effect has been studied within the field of radiology. Defined as a decrease in detection rates for a subsequent target when an initial target is found within the ...

    Authors: Stephen H. Adamo, Brian J. Gereke, Sarah Shomstein and Joseph Schmidt
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:59
  36. Prior research has shown that interruptions lead to a variety of performance costs. However, these costs are heterogenous and poorly understood. Under some circumstances, interruptions lead to large decreases ...

    Authors: David Alonso, Mark Lavelle and Trafton Drew
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:58
  37. How does viewers’ knowledge guide their attention while they watch everyday events, how does it affect their memory, and does it change with age? Older adults have diminished episodic memory for everyday event...

    Authors: Maverick E. Smith, Lester C. Loschky and Heather R. Bailey
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:56
  38. In the present study, we investigated whether police officers’ performance in searching for unfamiliar faces in a video-based real-world task is predicted by laboratory-based face processing tests that are typ...

    Authors: Markus M. Thielgen, Stefan Schade and Carolin Bosé
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:54
  39. Faces judged as stereotypically Black are perceived negatively relative to less stereotypical faces. In this experiment, artificial faces were constructed to examine the effects of nose width, lip fullness, an...

    Authors: Heather Kleider-Offutt, Ashley M. Meacham, Lee Branum-Martin and Megan Capodanno
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:53
  40. Politically oriented “fake news”—false stories or headlines created to support or attack a political position or person—is increasingly being shared and believed on social media. Many online platforms have tak...

    Authors: Rebecca Hofstein Grady, Peter H. Ditto and Elizabeth F. Loftus
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:52
  41. We investigated whether standardized neuropsychological tests and experimental cognitive paradigms measure the same cognitive faculties. Specifically, do neuropsychological tests commonly used to assess attent...

    Authors: Melissa Treviño, Xiaoshu Zhu, Yi Yi Lu, Luke S. Scheuer, Eliza Passell, Grace C. Huang, Laura T. Germine and Todd S. Horowitz
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:51
  42. One criterion of adaptive learning is appropriate generalization to new instances based on the original learning context and avoiding overgeneralization. Appropriate generalization requires understanding what ...

    Authors: Nicole R. Hallinen, Lauren N. Sprague, Kristen P. Blair, Rebecca M. Adler and Nora S. Newcombe
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:50
  43. Identifying speech requires that listeners make rapid use of fine-grained acoustic cues—a process that is facilitated by being able to see the talker’s face. Face masks present a challenge to this process beca...

    Authors: Violet A. Brown, Kristin J. Van Engen and Jonathan E. Peelle
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:49
  44. Face-identity processing declines with age. Few studies have examined whether face-identity processing abilities can be measured independently from general cognitive abilities in older adults (OA). This questi...

    Authors: Isabelle Boutet and Bozana Meinhardt-Injac
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:48

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