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Table 1 Results of studies testing for benefits of mindfulnessmeditation on interference control

From: Interference scores have inadequate concurrent and convergent validity: Should we stop using the flanker, Simon, and spatial Stroop tasks?

StudyTaskDuration.# in exp.# in controlRan-domActive?Decision
Training studies comparing trainees to controls
 Anderson, Lau, Segal, and Bishop (2007)color Stroop8 weeks 2 h/week3933yeswaitlistns
 Colzato, Sellaro, Samara, and Hommel (2015)Simon17-min session1818yesopen attentionns
 Esch et al. (2017)ANT5 days 1.5 h/day1615yesnons
 Larson, Steffen, and Primosch (2013)arrow flanker14.5 min2827yesrelaxationns
 Lai, MacNeil, and Frewen (2014)ANT15 min2321yescountingns
 Lim and Qu (2016)ANT15 min4139yesdance, sing, countns
 Norris, Creem, Hendler, and Kober (2018), Study 1)arrow flanker10 min1819yesreadingns
 Norris et al. (2018), Study 2)ANT10 min2927yesreadingns
 Oken et al. (2016)flanker6 weeks 60–90 min/wk6068yeswaitlistns
 Oken et al. (2016)color Stroop6 weeks 60–90 min/wk6068yeswaitlistns
 Polak (2009)ANT2 sessions 15 min each5050yesrelaxationns
 Polak (2009)color Stroop2 sessions, 15 min each5050yesrelaxationns
 van den Hurk et al. (2012)ANT8 sessions, 2.5 h each3437yeswaitlistns
 Wahbeh, Goodrich, Goy, and Oken (2016)ANT8 weeks + 20 min of daily homework2725yessitting quietlyns
 Jha, Krompinger, and Baime (2007)ANT6 weeks, 3 h/class1717nowaitlistns
 Ainsworth, Eddershaw, Meron, Baldwin, and Garner (2013)ANT3 days, 1 h/day focused att.2424yesrelaxationsig
 Ainsworth et al. (2013)ANT3 days, 1 h/day openness att.2524yesrelaxationsig
 Allen et al. (2012)number Stroop8 sessions, 2 h each1919yesselective listeningsig
 Becerra, Dandrade, and Harms (2017)ANT8 weeks, 24 min per wk2323yeswaitlistsig
 Elliott, Wallace, and Giesbrecht (2014)ANTweek long retreat, 3–4 h/day2219yeswaitlistsig
 Fan, Tang, Tang, and Posner (2014)Stroop color5 days, 20 min/day2122yesrelaxationsig
 Felver, Tipsord, Morris, Racer, and Dishion (2017)ANT8 weeks, 90 min./week2423yeswaitlistsig
 Moore, Gruber, Derose, and Malinowski (2012)Stroop color16 weeks, 10 min/week1216yeswaitlistsig
 Quan, Wang, Chu, and Zhou (2018)ANT7 days, 100 min/day2424yesrelaxationsig
 Tang et al. (2007)ANT5 days, 20 min/day2424yesrelaxationsig
 Tang (2009)ANT4 weeks, 11 h total  yesrelaxationsig
 Wenk-Sormaz (2005)color Stroop20 min,2020yesleaningsig
 Baijal, Jha, Kiyonaga, Singh, and Srinivasan (2011)ANT1 to 2 years7976no sig
StudyTaskExperience# in exp.# in controlRan-domControlsDecision
Cross-section studies comparing meditators to non-meditators
 Andreu et al. (2017)letter flanker5 years3130noathletesns
 Jo, Malinowski, and Schmidt (2017)ANT13.1 years2223no ns
 Isbel and Mahar (2015)ANTat least 6 months2321no ns
 Otten et al. (2015)ANTmin of 3 years2222no ns
 Schotz et al. (2015)flankermin of 3 years2020no ns
 Wei, Dong, Yang, Luo, and Zuo (2015)ANT14.6 years1822no ns
 Wittmann et al. (2015)ANT10 years4242no ns
 Moore and Malinowski (2009)color Stroop>  6 weeks2525no sig
 Sperduti, Makowski, and Piolino (2016)ANT25.5 years1616no sig
 Jha et al. (2007)ANT??17no sig
 van den Hurk, Giommi, Gielen, Speckens, and Barendregt (2010)ANT14.5 years2020no sig
  1. Note. ns statistical test was not significant, sig statistical test was significant