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Table 1 Results of studies testing for benefits of mindfulnessmeditation on interference control

From: Interference scores have inadequate concurrent and convergent validity: Should we stop using the flanker, Simon, and spatial Stroop tasks?

Study Task Duration. # in exp. # in control Ran-dom Active? Decision
Training studies comparing trainees to controls
 Anderson, Lau, Segal, and Bishop (2007) color Stroop 8 weeks 2 h/week 39 33 yes waitlist ns
 Colzato, Sellaro, Samara, and Hommel (2015) Simon 17-min session 18 18 yes open attention ns
 Esch et al. (2017) ANT 5 days 1.5 h/day 16 15 yes no ns
 Larson, Steffen, and Primosch (2013) arrow flanker 14.5 min 28 27 yes relaxation ns
 Lai, MacNeil, and Frewen (2014) ANT 15 min 23 21 yes counting ns
 Lim and Qu (2016) ANT 15 min 41 39 yes dance, sing, count ns
 Norris, Creem, Hendler, and Kober (2018), Study 1) arrow flanker 10 min 18 19 yes reading ns
 Norris et al. (2018), Study 2) ANT 10 min 29 27 yes reading ns
 Oken et al. (2016) flanker 6 weeks 60–90 min/wk 60 68 yes waitlist ns
 Oken et al. (2016) color Stroop 6 weeks 60–90 min/wk 60 68 yes waitlist ns
 Polak (2009) ANT 2 sessions 15 min each 50 50 yes relaxation ns
 Polak (2009) color Stroop 2 sessions, 15 min each 50 50 yes relaxation ns
 van den Hurk et al. (2012) ANT 8 sessions, 2.5 h each 34 37 yes waitlist ns
 Wahbeh, Goodrich, Goy, and Oken (2016) ANT 8 weeks + 20 min of daily homework 27 25 yes sitting quietly ns
 Jha, Krompinger, and Baime (2007) ANT 6 weeks, 3 h/class 17 17 no waitlist ns
 Ainsworth, Eddershaw, Meron, Baldwin, and Garner (2013) ANT 3 days, 1 h/day focused att. 24 24 yes relaxation sig
 Ainsworth et al. (2013) ANT 3 days, 1 h/day openness att. 25 24 yes relaxation sig
 Allen et al. (2012) number Stroop 8 sessions, 2 h each 19 19 yes selective listening sig
 Becerra, Dandrade, and Harms (2017) ANT 8 weeks, 24 min per wk 23 23 yes waitlist sig
 Elliott, Wallace, and Giesbrecht (2014) ANT week long retreat, 3–4 h/day 22 19 yes waitlist sig
 Fan, Tang, Tang, and Posner (2014) Stroop color 5 days, 20 min/day 21 22 yes relaxation sig
 Felver, Tipsord, Morris, Racer, and Dishion (2017) ANT 8 weeks, 90 min./week 24 23 yes waitlist sig
 Moore, Gruber, Derose, and Malinowski (2012) Stroop color 16 weeks, 10 min/week 12 16 yes waitlist sig
 Quan, Wang, Chu, and Zhou (2018) ANT 7 days, 100 min/day 24 24 yes relaxation sig
 Tang et al. (2007) ANT 5 days, 20 min/day 24 24 yes relaxation sig
 Tang (2009) ANT 4 weeks, 11 h total    yes relaxation sig
 Wenk-Sormaz (2005) color Stroop 20 min, 20 20 yes leaning sig
 Baijal, Jha, Kiyonaga, Singh, and Srinivasan (2011) ANT 1 to 2 years 79 76 no   sig
Study Task Experience # in exp. # in control Ran-dom Controls Decision
Cross-section studies comparing meditators to non-meditators
 Andreu et al. (2017) letter flanker 5 years 31 30 no athletes ns
 Jo, Malinowski, and Schmidt (2017) ANT 13.1 years 22 23 no   ns
 Isbel and Mahar (2015) ANT at least 6 months 23 21 no   ns
 Otten et al. (2015) ANT min of 3 years 22 22 no   ns
 Schotz et al. (2015) flanker min of 3 years 20 20 no   ns
 Wei, Dong, Yang, Luo, and Zuo (2015) ANT 14.6 years 18 22 no   ns
 Wittmann et al. (2015) ANT 10 years 42 42 no   ns
 Moore and Malinowski (2009) color Stroop >  6 weeks 25 25 no   sig
 Sperduti, Makowski, and Piolino (2016) ANT 25.5 years 16 16 no   sig
 Jha et al. (2007) ANT ? ? 17 no   sig
 van den Hurk, Giommi, Gielen, Speckens, and Barendregt (2010) ANT 14.5 years 20 20 no   sig
  1. Note. ns statistical test was not significant, sig statistical test was significant