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Table 6 Summary of results concerning predictions of mind wandering (MW) as a function of concentration and affective daydreaming style

From: The contribution of latent factors of executive functioning to mind wandering: an experience sampling study

Follow-up on predictions
Prediction Result Comment Revised Prediction for further research
Executive functioning (specifically updating) predicts lower MW as concentration increases Not supported with MW defined as SITUTs (our a priori), but supported with MW defined as TUTs (Kane et al., 2007, 2017) Post hoc analysis indicated that this association is not SITUT-specific (i.e., EDs, TRIs show similar relations as SITUTs compared to on-task focus) Updating predicts lower EDs, SITUTs, and TRIs as concentration increases
Executive functioning (specifically updating) predicts lower MW as guilty-dysphoric style increases Not supported with updating, but supported with common executive functioning The symmetry span result in Marcusson-Clavertz et al. (2016) may reflect variance due to common executive functioning rather than updating Common executive functioning predicts lower SITUTs as guilty-dysphoric style increases
Executive functioning (specifically inhibiting) predicts lower MW as positive-constructive style decreases Not supported, regardless of operationalization of MW or executive functioning The Stroop result in Marcusson-Clavertz et al. (2016) might have been a false discovery or reflect variance not captured by the cognitive battery in the present study
New prediction
A priori exploratory analysis Result Comment Prediction for further research
MW as a function of shifting and daydreaming style Shifting-specific ability predicted more SITUTs as guilty-dysphoric style increased The opposite effects of shifting-specific and common executive functioning on the slope of guilty-dysphoric style on MW may reflect a stability-flexibility trade-off that is arguably consistent with the neural network model of Herd et al. (2014) Shifting-specific ability predicts higher SITUTs as guilty-dysphoric style increases
  1. SITUT, stimulus-independent and task-unrelated thought; TUT, task-unrelated thought; ED, external distraction; TRI, task-related interference