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Table 5 Results from multilevel models with executive functioning (EF) factors and daydreaming stylesas predictors of mind wandering

From: The contribution of latent factors of executive functioning to mind wandering: an experience sampling study

  SITUTs TUTs SITs
B (SE) p OR 95% CI B (SE) P OR 95% CI B (SE) p OR 95% CI
Null model (M1)             
Intercept  − 1.46 (0.06)  < .01 0.23 [0.20, 0.26]  − 0.86 (0.06)  < .01 0.42 [0.37, 0.48]  − 0.82 (0.06)  < .01 0.44 [0.39, 0.50]
Main effects model (M2)
Intercept  − 1.47 (0.06)  < .01 0.23 [0.20, 0.26]  − 0.86 (0.06)  < .01 0.42 [0.37, 0.48]  − 0.82 (0.06)  < .01 0.44 [0.39, 0.50]
Shifting-specific  − 0.02 (0.08) .77 0.98 [0.83, 1.15] 0.01 (0.08) .91 1.01 [0.86, 1.18]  − 0.01 (0.08) .90 0.99 [0.84, 1.17]
Updating-specific 0.10 (0.08) .19 1.11 [0.95, 1.29] 0.11 (0.07) .11 1.12 [0.98, 1.28] 0.06 (0.07) .41 1.06 [0.93, 1.21]
Common EF 0.01 (0.07) .89 1.01 [0.88, 1.16] 0.06 (0.08) .43 1.06 [0.91, 1.24]  − 0.10 (0.07) .19 0.91 [0.79, 1.05]
Positive-constructive 0.19 (0.07)  < .01 1.21 [1.06, 1.38] 0.17 (0.07) .01 1.18 [1.04, 1.34] 0.16 (0.07) .02 1.17 [1.02, 1.34]
Guilty-dysphoric  − 0.02 (0.06) .79 0.98 [0.87, 1.11] 0.06 (0.06) .34 1.06 [0.94, 1.20]  − 0.03 (0.07) .69 0.97 [0.86, 1.11]
Confirmatory interaction model (M3)
Intercept  − 1.46 (0.06)  < .01 0.23 [0.20, 0.26]  − 0.85 (0.06)  < .01 0.43 [0.38, 0.48]  − 0.81 (0.06)  < .01 0.44 [0.39, 0.50]
Shifting-specific  − 0.02 (0.08) .80 0.98 [0.84, 1.15] 0.00 (0.08) .95 1.00 [0.86, 1.17]  − 0.02 (0.08) .84 0.98 [0.83, 1.16]
Updating-specific 0.11 (0.08) .16 1.12 [0.96, 1.31] 0.12 (0.07) .09 1.13 [0.98, 1.30] 0.06 (0.07) .35 1.07 [0.93, 1.22]
Common EF 0.01 (0.07) .87 1.01 [0.88, 1.17] 0.07 (0.08) .41 1.07 [0.91, 1.25]  − 0.09 (0.07) .21 0.91 [0.79, 1.06]
Positive-constructive 0.19 (0.07)  < .01 1.21 [1.06, 1.39] 0.17 (0.06) .01 1.18 [1.04, 1.34] 0.16 (0.07) .02 1.17 [1.02, 1.33]
Guilty-dysphoric  − 0.01 (0.06) .85 0.99 [0.88, 1.12] 0.07 (0.06) .27 1.07 [0.95, 1.21]  − 0.02 (0.06) .81 0.98 [0.87, 1.12]
Positive-constructive × Common EF  − 0.08 (0.07) .27 0.93 [0.81, 1.06]  − 0.05 (0.07) .50 0.95 [0.82, 1.10]  − 0.03 (0.08) .72 0.97 [0.82, 1.15]
Guilty-dysphoric × Updating-specific 0.07 (0.07) .32 1.07 [0.94, 1.22] 0.11 (0.07) .11 1.12 [0.97, 1.28] 0.10 (0.07) .15 1.10 [0.97, 1.26]
Exploratory interaction model (M4)
Intercept  − 1.49 (0.07)  < .01 0.23 [0.20, 0.26]  − 0.86 (0.07)  < .01 0.42 [0.37, 0.48]  − 0.82 (0.07)  < .01 0.44 [0.39, 0.51]
Shifting-specific 0.06 (0.10) .54 1.06 [0.87, 1.30] 0.06 (0.09) .53 1.06 [0.88, 1.28] 0.01 (0.09) .94 1.01 [0.85, 1.20]
Updating-specific 0.10 (0.07) .17 1.11 [0.96, 1.28] 0.11 (0.07) .12 1.12 [0.97, 1.28] 0.06 (0.07) .37 1.06 [0.93, 1.22]
Common executive functioning  − 0.01 (0.07) .94 0.99 [0.86, 1.15] 0.05 (0.08) .50 1.05 [0.90, 1.23]  − 0.10 (0.07) .16 0.90 [0.78, 1.04]
Positive-constructive 0.17 (0.07)  < .01 1.19 [1.04, 1.35] 0.15 (0.07) .02 1.16 [1.02, 1.32] 0.14 (0.07) .04 1.16 [1.01, 1.32]
Guilty-dysphoric  − 0.03 (0.06) .60 0.97 [0.86, 1.09] 0.06 (0.06) .38 1.06 [0.93, 1.20]  − 0.02 (0.07) .72 0.98 [0.86, 1.11]
Positive-constructive × Shifting-specific 0.08 (0.08) .35 1.08 [0.92, 1.27] 0.07 (0.08) .40 1.07 [0.91, 1.27] 0.07 (0.09) .41 1.08 [0.90, 1.29]
Positive-constructive × Updating-specific 0.03 (0.09) .74 1.03 [0.86, 1.24] 0.05 (0.08) .57 1.05 [0.89, 1.23]  − 0.02 (0.10) .83 0.98 [0.81, 1.19]
Positive-constructive × Common EF  − 0.09 (0.07) .24 0.92 [0.80, 1.06]  − 0.07 (0.09) .44 0.93 [0.79, 1.11]  − 0.03 (0.10) .75 0.97 [0.80, 1.18]
Guilty-dysphoric × Shifting-specific 0.31 (0.09)  < .01 1.37 [1.15, 1.63] 0.21 (0.09) .02 1.24 [1.03, 1.48] 0.09 (0.09) .31 1.10 [0.92, 1.32]
Guilty-dysphoric × Updating-specific 0.16 (0.07) .02 1.17 [1.02, 1.34] 0.16 (0.07) .02 1.18 [1.02, 1.36] 0.15 (0.07) .04 1.16 [1.00, 1.34]
Guilty-dysphoric × Common EF  − 0.16 (0.07) .02 0.85 [0.74, 0.97]  − 0.05 (0.08) .57 0.95 [0.81, 1.12]  − 0.06 (0.08) .45 0.94 [0.79, 1.11]
Model comparisons Δχ2 P    Δχ2 p    Δχ2 p   
M2 vs. M1 (df = 5) 11.12 .05    12.69 .03    8.44 .13   
M3 vs. M2 (df = 2) 2.32 .31    3.43 .18    2.36 .31   
M4 vs. M2 (df = 6) 23.17  < .01    13.30 .04    6.12 .41   
M4 vs. M1 (df = 11) 34.29  < .01    25.99  < .01    14.56 .20   
  1. Endorsed models in bold. Nindividuals = 187. Nmoments = 10,295. TUT, task-unrelated thought; SITUT, Stimulus-independent and task-unrelated thought; SIT, Stimulus-independent thought