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Table 6 Familiarity and believability ratings of true claims in pilot study

From: Can corrections spread misinformation to new audiences? Testing for the elusive familiarity backfire effect

Claim Familiarity Believability
M SD M SD
aA man in Canada was still allowed to board his flight after a pipe bomb was found in his bag 1.40 0.87 2.29 1.09
In Turkey, people do not chew gum at night due to a superstition that it represents chewing the flesh of the dead 1.40 0.87 2.62 1.03
aThe color of a chicken’s egg is related to the chicken’s earlobe color 1.51 0.97 2.59 1.03
Hippopotamus milk is pink (item excluded as actually found to be false) 1.54 1.08 2.33 0.87
aChicken carcasses can be used for renewable energy 1.57 1.12 3.38 1.01
2014 was the deadliest year for flying on a plane, with 992 fatalities globally 1.62 0.96 3.27 1.10
aThe national animal of Scotland is the unicorn 1.68 1.23 2.78 1.08
aSaudi Arabia has revealed plans for a US$500 billion “no fossil fuels” mega-city 1.69 1.08 1.98 0.94
Exposure to microwaves can open the blood-brain barrier 1.81 1.10 2.84 1.23
In 2015, Sweden imported nearly 1.3 million tons of waste from Norway, the UK, Ireland, and others 1.84 1.19 2.47 1.28
aPessimism may be inherited due to a genetic mutation 1.93 1.17 2.20 1.01
Dandelion root extract is being tested as a cancer treatment 2.13 1.31 3.43 1.03
After the release of “The Hunger Games” in 2012, women’s participation in archery rose by 105% 2.20 1.37 2.74 1.03
Germany has officially removed any tuition fees for both local and international college students 2.25 1.34 3.57 0.90
Honeybee stings are used in the treatment of arthritis 2.29 1.49 2.75 1.22
The plague is still active in the US today 2.30 1.49 3.00 0.95
26 civilians died in the conflict along the Ukraine-Russia border in the summer of 2017 alone 2.35 1.31 2.78 1.05
The heart of a blue whale is so massive that a human being can swim through its arteries 2.49 1.58 2.97 1.22
Coca Cola single-bottle production is over 110 billion per year 2.52 1.34 3.63 1.37
A mattress doubles its weight after 10 years of usage 2.57 1.56 3.52 1.21
Roughly 800 journalists have been killed globally over the last 10 years 2.59 1.51 2.22 1.23
Nano-robots are being tested in the treatment of cancer 2.78 1.45 3.20 1.32
Acne is a hereditary condition 2.79 1.31 2.75 1.17
China is implementing a citizen ranking system to determine who is a good citizen 3.47 1.71 2.21 1.29
  1. Note. aindicates claims used in Experiments 1–3