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Table 1 Different analyzed types of emoji sequencing

From: The grammar of emoji? Constraints on communicative pictorial sequencing

Emoji type Definition Example
One-unit grammars
 Formulaic expressions Emoji serving conversational functions (yes, no, hmm) = hello
 Responsive emotions Emoji used for feelings or emotions , , ,
 Affixation Attachment of two emoji to create a larger single unit = running person
 Whole image Combination of emoji to create a single “picture”  = person running to a ferris wheel
Linear grammars
 Reduplication Repetition of the same emoji
 Semantic list Emoji related by a semantic associative field = “dress nice”
 Unrelated list List of emoji with no intrinsic semantic relationships = “I see myself graduated, animals, house, job”
 Temporal sequence A linear sequence of events = “In the morning see a cow, then chicken, then…”
Categorical grammars
 Three-unit (SOV, SVO, etc.) Three-unit sequence of emoji playing “grammatical” roles = “(I) hope soon to get a dog”
 Two-unit (SV, SO, OS, OV, VS, VO) Two-unit sequence of emoji playing “grammatical” roles = “(I) don’t want to get married”
Simple phrase grammars
 Embedded sequencing Sequencing where one grouping was embedded in another grouping = A couple in love [] goes to the ferris wheel []
Other classifications
 Metonymy An emoji with a related meaning to the actual message , = work/job
 Rebus Use of an emoji for its phonological correspondence unconnected to its visual meaning  = book a flight
  1. Examples come from produced emoji-only utterances in Experiment 1, and participant annotations are in quotes
  2. O object, S subject, V verb