Skip to main content

Table 2 Average number of explanations of each type by group (study 2)

From: Removing opportunities to calculate improves students’ performance on subsequent word problems

Type of explanation Calculable
(N = 40)
Mean (SD)
Non-calculable
(N = 41)
Mean (SD)
Group comparison
Attempted to solve 2.53 (0.82) 1.44 (1.16) t(79) = 4.85
p < .0001
Cohen’s d = 1.09
Describing steps 1.00 (1.09) 0.32 (0.69) t(79) = 3.39
p = .001
Cohen’s d = 0.75
Explaining mathematical relationships 1.40 (1.19) 1.05 (0.95) t(79) = 1.47
p = .146
Cohen’s d = 0.33
  1. Note, scores ranged from 0 to 3, with 3 meaning a student produced an explanation of that type for each of the three problems