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Table 2 Results of the GEE binary logistic and linear regression models to determine variables that predict accuracy on the detect and locate tasks

From: Can people identify original and manipulated photos of real-world scenes?

Predictor Detect Locate
B OR 95% CI p B OR 95% CI p
Response time
 Accuracy 0.11 1.11 [1.08, 1.15] <0.001 - - -
d' −0.01 0.99 [0.98, 1.01] 0.31 - - -
c 0.01 1.01 [1.00, 1.02] 0.10 - - -
General beliefs about percentage of images manipulated = High (71–100%)
 Accuracy 0.20 1.22 [1.06, 1.41] 0.01 0.11 1.11 [0.98, 1.26] 0.10
d' 0.16 1.17 [1.05, 1.30] 0.01 - - -
c −0.05 0.96 [0.90, 1.02] 0.16 - - -
Gender = Female
 Accuracy 0.05 1.05 [0.90, 1.23] 0.50 −0.16 0.86 [0.75, 0.98] 0.03
d' −0.06 0.95 [0.84, 1.06] 0.35 - - -
c −0.05 0.95 [0.89, 1.02] 0.15 - - -
Interest in photography = Interested
 Accuracy 0.06 1.07 [0.92, 1.24] 0.41 0.04 1.05 [0.92, 1.19] 0.51
d' −0.02 0.98 [0.88, 1.10] 0.73 - - -
c −0.05 0.96 [0.89, 1.03] 0.20 - - -
Frequency of taking photos = Daily/weekly
 Accuracy −0.15 0.86 [0.73, 1.01] 0.07 −0.07 0.94 [0.81, 1.08] 0.35
d' −0.08 0.92 [0.81, 1.04] 0.18 - - -
c 0.01 1.01 [0.94, 1.09] 0.71 - - -
  1. B and odds ratios (OR) estimate the degree of change in (a) accuracy on the task (based on the manipulated image trials), (b) d', or (c) c associated with one unit change in the independent variable. An odds ratio of 1 indicates no effect of the independent variable on accuracy; values of 1.5, 2.5, and 4.0 are generally considered to reflect small, medium, and large effect sizes, respectively (Rosenthal, 1996). The category order for factors was set to descending to make the reference level 0. The reference groups are: General beliefs about percentage of images manipulated = Low (0–70%), Gender = Male, Interest in photography = Not Interested, Frequency of taking photos = Monthly/yearly/never. For response time (RT) we divided the data into eight equal groups (level 1 represents the slowest RTs (≥43.4 s) and level 8 the fastest RTs (≤8.4 s)). The 21 subjects who chose not to disclose their gender were excluded from these analyses leaving a total sample of n = 686. Given that subjects only responded on the location task if they said “yes”, the photo had been manipulated, we did not have location response time data for all of the trials and therefore were unable to consider response time on the location task. Because we did not have a fixed number of choices per condition in the location task, we were unable to calculate the degree of change in d' or c associated with the predictor variables