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Table 2 Descriptive statistics showing average incidence of gesture, insight, and proof for different experimental conditions

From: Grounded and embodied mathematical cognition: Promoting mathematical insight and proof using action and language

Condition Depictive gestures Dynamic depictive gestures Mathematical insight Transformational proof
Irrelevant actions (N = 81) 16.0% 9.9% 28.4% 14.8%
Relevant actions (N = 128) 28.1% 10.0% 25.8% 14.1%
Relevant actions + pedagogical language (N = 100) 58.0% 29.3% 43.4% 27.0%
  1. Note: Standard deviations are not provided because when the outcome is binary (0/1), the sample size and mean give all necessary information