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Table 6 Experiments 1A and 1B: Inferential statistics testing for the effect of a blocked as compared to a random training method and for the difference between the prose training mode and the three training modes Rhyme, Melody, and Rhyme&Melody in the sentence production (SP) and forced-choice grammaticality judgment tasks (GJ). SPwF refers to the sentence production task administered at the end of the last training session

From: Language play facilitates language learning: Optimizing the input for gender-like category induction

Training condition Old items Novel items
Production Comprehension   Production   Comprehension  
SPwFa SPb GJc SPd GJe
χ 2(1) p χ 2(1) p χ 2(1) p χ 2(1) P χ 2(1) p
Blocking 38.76 0.001 *** 28.95 0.001 *** 23.28 0.001 *** 60.10 0.001 *** 36.07 0.001 ***
Rhyme 4.43 0.035 * 5.35 0.021 * 1.97 0.161 0.07 0.789 1.14 0.286
Melody 3.78 0.052 (*) 9.21 0.002 *** 9.27 0.002 ** 6.96 0.008 ** 5.68 0.017 *
Rhyme&Melody 17.62 0.001 *** 20.65 0.001 *** 26.86 0.001 *** 12.64 0.001 *** 13.41 0.001 ***
Blocking:Rhyme 0.01 0.916 0.47 0.494 0.15 0.701 1.85 0.174 0.02 0.888
Blocking:Melody 0.69 0.407 2.76 0.097 0.77 0.381 1.17 0.280 3.23 0.072 (*)
Blocking:Rhyme&Melody 4.92 0.027 ** 8.52 0.004 ** 9.92 0.002 *** 4.56 0.033 * 2.19 0.139
  1. (*) p < 0.08, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. aFull model’s AIC: 6543.5, BIC: 6639.3, excluding the random effects of Melody, Blocking:Rhyme, and Blocking:Melody
  3. bFull model’s AIC: 3534.0, BIC: 3638.5
  4. cFull model’s AIC: 2583.0, BIC: 2669.1, excluding the random effects of Melody, Blocking:Melody, and Blocking:Rhyme&Melody
  5. dFull model’s AIC: 1674.8, BIC: 1766.6, excluding the random effects of Rhyme&Melody
  6. eFull model’s AIC: 1312.2, BIC: 1409.8, excluding the random effects of Melody, Rhyme&Melody, Blocking:Rhyme, Blocking:Melody, and Blocking:Rhyme&Melody