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  1. How does viewers’ knowledge guide their attention while they watch everyday events, how does it affect their memory, and does it change with age? Older adults have diminished episodic memory for everyday event...

    Authors: Maverick E. Smith, Lester C. Loschky and Heather R. Bailey
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:56
  2. In the present study, we investigated whether police officers’ performance in searching for unfamiliar faces in a video-based real-world task is predicted by laboratory-based face processing tests that are typ...

    Authors: Markus M. Thielgen, Stefan Schade and Carolin Bosé
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:54
  3. Faces judged as stereotypically Black are perceived negatively relative to less stereotypical faces. In this experiment, artificial faces were constructed to examine the effects of nose width, lip fullness, an...

    Authors: Heather Kleider-Offutt, Ashley M. Meacham, Lee Branum-Martin and Megan Capodanno
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:53
  4. Politically oriented “fake news”—false stories or headlines created to support or attack a political position or person—is increasingly being shared and believed on social media. Many online platforms have tak...

    Authors: Rebecca Hofstein Grady, Peter H. Ditto and Elizabeth F. Loftus
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:52
  5. We investigated whether standardized neuropsychological tests and experimental cognitive paradigms measure the same cognitive faculties. Specifically, do neuropsychological tests commonly used to assess attent...

    Authors: Melissa Treviño, Xiaoshu Zhu, Yi Yi Lu, Luke S. Scheuer, Eliza Passell, Grace C. Huang, Laura T. Germine and Todd S. Horowitz
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:51
  6. One criterion of adaptive learning is appropriate generalization to new instances based on the original learning context and avoiding overgeneralization. Appropriate generalization requires understanding what ...

    Authors: Nicole R. Hallinen, Lauren N. Sprague, Kristen P. Blair, Rebecca M. Adler and Nora S. Newcombe
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:50
  7. Identifying speech requires that listeners make rapid use of fine-grained acoustic cues—a process that is facilitated by being able to see the talker’s face. Face masks present a challenge to this process beca...

    Authors: Violet A. Brown, Kristin J. Van Engen and Jonathan E. Peelle
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:49
  8. Face-identity processing declines with age. Few studies have examined whether face-identity processing abilities can be measured independently from general cognitive abilities in older adults (OA). This questi...

    Authors: Isabelle Boutet and Bozana Meinhardt-Injac
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:48
  9. Visual search in dynamic environments, for example lifeguarding or CCTV monitoring, has several fundamentally different properties to standard visual search tasks. The visual environment is constantly moving, ...

    Authors: Emily M. Crowe, Christina J. Howard, Iain D. Gilchrist and Christopher Kent
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:47
  10. Eye tracking is a useful tool for studying human cognition, both in the laboratory and in real-world applications. However, there are cases in which eye tracking is not possible, such as in high-security envir...

    Authors: Laura E. Matzen, Mallory C. Stites and Zoe. N. Gastelum
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:45
  11. Test anxiety is a major concern in education because it causes uncomfortable feelings in test-anxious students and may reduce the validity of exam scores as a measure of learning. As such, brief and cost-effec...

    Authors: Sarah J. Myers, Sara D. Davis and Jason C. K. Chan
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:44
  12. One of the many sources of information easily available to children is the internet and the millions of websites providing accurate, and sometimes inaccurate, information. In the current investigation, we exam...

    Authors: Kim P. Roberts, Katherine R. Wood and Breanne E. Wylie
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:42
  13. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has considerably heightened health and financial concerns for many individuals. Similar concerns, such as those associated with poverty, impair performance on cogn...

    Authors: Jihyang Jun, Yi Ni Toh, Caitlin A. Sisk, Roger W. Remington and Vanessa G. Lee
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:41
  14. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs have many benefits but also carry risks, such as adverse drug reactions, which are more prevalent in older adults. Because these products do not require the oversight of a physicia...

    Authors: Alyssa L. Harben, Deborah A. Kashy, Shiva Esfahanian, Lanqing Liu, Laura Bix and Mark W. Becker
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:40
  15. Research on the sharing of fake news has primarily focused on the manner in which fake news spreads and the literary style of fake news. These studies, however, do not explain how characteristics of fake news ...

    Authors: Amy J. Lim, Edison Tan and Tania Lim
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:39
  16. Repeated information is often perceived as more truthful than new information. This finding is known as the illusory truth effect, and it is typically thought to occur because repetition increases processing f...

    Authors: Aumyo Hassan and Sarah J. Barber
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:38
  17. People often need to update representations of information upon discovering them to be incorrect, a process that can be interrupted by competing cognitive demands. Because anxiety and stress can impair cogniti...

    Authors: Vera E. Newman, Hannah F. Yee, Adrian R. Walker, Metaxia Toumbelekis and Steven B. Most
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:36
  18. Attention is known to play an important role in shaping the behaviour of both human and animal foragers. Here, in three experiments, we built on previous interactive tasks to create an online foraging game for...

    Authors: Ian M. Thornton, Jérôme Tagu, Sunčica Zdravković and Árni Kristjánsson
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:35
  19. The cognitive load of many everyday life tasks exceeds known limitations of short-term memory. One strategy to compensate for information overload is cognitive offloading which refers to the externalization of...

    Authors: Hauke S. Meyerhoff, Sandra Grinschgl, Frank Papenmeier and Sam J. Gilbert
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:34
  20. When searching for a known target, mental representations of target features, or templates, guide attention towards matching objects and facilitate recognition. When only distractor features are known, distrac...

    Authors: Alex Muhl-Richardson, Maximilian G. Parker, Sergio A. Recio, Maria Tortosa-Molina, Jennifer L. Daffron and Greg J. Davis
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:33

    The Correction to this article has been published in Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:60

  21. A major problem in human cognition is to understand how newly acquired information and long-standing beliefs about the environment combine to make decisions and plan behaviors. Over-dependence on long-standing...

    Authors: Gwendolyn L. Rehrig, Michelle Cheng, Brian C. McMahan and Rahul Shome
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:32
  22. In co-located, multi-user settings such as multi-touch tables, user interfaces need to be accessible from multiple viewpoints. In this project, we investigated how this goal can be achieved for depictions of d...

    Authors: Tjark Müller, Friedrich W. Hesse and Hauke S. Meyerhoff
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:31
  23. Human operators often experience large fluctuations in cognitive workload over seconds timescales that can lead to sub-optimal performance, ranging from overload to neglect. Adaptive automation could potential...

    Authors: Udo Boehm, Dora Matzke, Matthew Gretton, Spencer Castro, Joel Cooper, Michael Skinner, David Strayer and Andrew Heathcote
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:30

    The Correction to this article has been published in Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:62

  24. How do scientists generate and weight candidate queries for hypothesis testing, and how does learning from observations or experimental data impact query selection? Field sciences offer a compelling context to...

    Authors: Cristina G. Wilson, Feifei Qian, Douglas J. Jerolmack, Sonia Roberts, Jonathan Ham, Daniel Koditschek and Thomas F. Shipley
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:29
  25. Today’s citizens are expected to use evidence, frequently presented in the media, to inform decisions about health, behavior, and public policy. However, science misinformation is ubiquitous in the media, maki...

    Authors: Audrey L. Michal, Yiwen Zhong and Priti Shah
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:28
  26. Camouflage-breaking is a special case of visual search where an object of interest, or target, can be hard to distinguish from the background even when in plain view. We have previously shown that naive, non-p...

    Authors: Fallon Branch, Allison JoAnna Lewis, Isabella Noel Santana and Jay Hegdé
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:27
  27. Collective intelligence (CI) is said to manifest in a group’s domain general mental ability. It can be measured across a battery of group IQ tests and statistically reduced to a latent factor called the “c-factor...

    Authors: Luke I. Rowe, John Hattie and Robert Hester
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:26
  28. Professional screeners frequently verify photograph IDs in such industries as professional security, bar tending, and sales of age-restricted materials. Moreover, security screening is a vital tool for law enf...

    Authors: Dawn R. Weatherford, Devin Roberson and William Blake Erickson
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:25
  29. Previous research has focused on accuracy associated with real and fake news presented in the form of news headlines only, which does not capture the rich context news is frequently encountered in real life. A...

    Authors: Didem Pehlivanoglu, Tian Lin, Farha Deceus, Amber Heemskerk, Natalie C. Ebner and Brian S. Cahill
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:24
  30. College students lack fact-checking skills, which may lead them to accept information at face value. We report findings from an institution participating in the Digital Polarization Initiative (DPI), a nationa...

    Authors: Jessica E. Brodsky, Patricia J. Brooks, Donna Scimeca, Ralitsa Todorova, Peter Galati, Michael Batson, Robert Grosso, Michael Matthews, Victor Miller and Michael Caulfield
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:23
  31. The purpose of the present note is to draw attention to the potential role of a recently discovered visual illusion in creating traffic accidents. The illusion consists in a compelling and immediate experience...

    Authors: Vebjørn Ekroll, Mats Svalebjørg, Angelo Pirrone, Gisela Böhm, Sebastian Jentschke, Rob van Lier, Johan Wagemans and Alena Høye
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:22
  32. When a visual search target frequently appears in one target-rich region of space, participants learn to search there first, resulting in faster reaction time when the target appears there than when it appears...

    Authors: Caitlin A. Sisk, Victoria Interrante and Yuhong V. Jiang
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:21
  33. Professions such as radiology and aviation security screening that rely on visual search—the act of looking for targets among distractors—often cannot provide operators immediate feedback, which can create sit...

    Authors: Patrick H. Cox, Dwight J. Kravitz and Stephen R. Mitroff
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:19
  34. It has repeatedly been reported that, when making decisions under uncertainty, groups outperform individuals. Real groups are often replaced by simulated groups: Instead of performing an actual group discussio...

    Authors: Sascha Meyen, Dorothee M. B. Sigg, Ulrike von Luxburg and Volker H. Franz
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:18
  35. Cognition and action are often intertwined in everyday life. It is thus pivotal to understand how cognitive processes operate with concurrent actions. The present study aims to assess how simple physical effor...

    Authors: Hyung-Bum Park, Shinhae Ahn and Weiwei Zhang
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:17
  36. Experts outperform novices on many cognitive and perceptual tasks. Extensive training has tuned experts to the most relevant information in their specific domain, allowing them to make decisions quickly and ac...

    Authors: Samuel G. Robson, Jason M. Tangen and Rachel A. Searston
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:16
  37. The diagnostic feature-detection theory (DFT) of eyewitness identification is based on facial information that is diagnostic versus non-diagnostic of suspect guilt. It primarily has been tested by discounting ...

    Authors: Curt A. Carlson, Jacob A. Hemby, Alex R. Wooten, Alyssa R. Jones, Robert F. Lockamyeir, Maria A. Carlson, Jennifer L. Dias and Jane E. Whittington
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:14
  38. Decisions often require a tradeoff between immediate and long-term gratification. How individuals resolve such tradeoffs reflects constructs such as temporal discounting, the degree that individuals devalue de...

    Authors: Michael T. Bixter and Christian C. Luhmann
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:13
  39. Visual inspection of luggage using X-ray technology at airports is a time-sensitive task that is often supported by automated systems to increase performance and reduce workload. The present study evaluated ho...

    Authors: Tobias Rieger, Lydia Heilmann and Dietrich Manzey
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:12
  40. The introduction of autonomous vehicles (AVs) could prevent many accidents attributable to human driver error. However, even entirely driverless vehicles will sometimes require remote human intervention. Curre...

    Authors: Clare Mutzenich, Szonya Durant, Shaun Helman and Polly Dalton
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:9
  41. CCTV plays a prominent role in public security, health and safety. Monitoring large arrays of CCTV camera feeds is a visually and cognitively demanding task. Arranging the scenes by geographical proximity in t...

    Authors: Benjamin W. Tatler
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:11
  42. According to the Gricean Maxim of Quantity, speakers provide the amount of information listeners require to correctly interpret an utterance, and no more (Grice in Logic and conversation, 1975). However, speak...

    Authors: Gwendolyn Rehrig, Reese A. Cullimore, John M. Henderson and Fernanda Ferreira
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:10
  43. Domain-specific expertise changes the way people perceive, process, and remember information from that domain. This is often observed in visual domains involving skilled searches, such as athletics referees, o...

    Authors: Megan H. Papesh, Michael C. Hout, Juan D. Guevara Pinto, Arryn Robbins and Alexis Lopez
    Citation: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 2021 6:7

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