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Table 5 Demographic characteristics of experimental groups

From: Optimizing song retention through the spacing effect

  10-min 2-day 7-day BF10
Age 21.0 (2.5) 21.0 (3.5) 20.9 (3.3) 0.10
Gender 20F/10 M 11F/18 M 14F/14 M 0.98
Guardian years of education 15.0 (3.1) 14.8 (3.5) 15.6 (2.9) 0.15
Bilingual (0 no–10 yes) 5.5 (3.1) 5.4 (3.3) 5.4 (3.9) 0.10
Singer n = 8 no
n = 22 yes
n = 9 no
n = 20 yes
n = 6 no
n = 22 yes
0.10
Took voice lessons n = 17 no
n = 13 yes
n = 22 no
n = 7 yes
n = 15 no
n = 13 yes
0.49
Hours per week of singing 6.5 (7.5) 5.3 (4.3) 5.2 (4.7) 0.15
Sheet music reading proficiency (10 = most proficient) 5.5 (2.6) 6.4 (2.7) 6.1 (2.5) 0.23
Log number of songs performed from memory 1.1 (1.0) 1.1 (1.0) 1.4 (0.91) 0.17
Anxiety at testing (10 = extremely anxious) 3.3 (2.7) 3.0 (2.5) 3.1 (2.4) 0.11
PROMS test of music perception ability 22.8 (4.8) 22.5 (3.7) 23.7 (3.9) 0.17
  1. Mean and SD are shown