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Table 8 Descriptive statistics for self-reported use of lateral reading strategies by time and condition (N = 230; NDPI = 136, NControl = 94)

From: Improving college students’ fact-checking strategies through lateral reading instruction in a general education civics course

Strategy Pretest Posttest
DPI Control DPI Control
Check the information with another source 3.82 (0.86) 3.70 (0.98)
(N = 93)
3.81 (0.89) 3.62 (0.88)
(N = 92)
Look for the original source of the information 3.62 (1.02) 3.57 (1.06) 3.57 (1.03) 3.53 (1.05)
Find out more about the author of the information 3.01 (1.22) 2.85 (1.11) 3.26 (1.14) 2.99 (1.26)
Find out more about who publishes the website (like a company, organization, or government) 3.01 (1.14)
(N = 135)
2.76 (1.12) 3.53 (1.07) 2.97 (1.27)
Consider how your emotions affect how you judge the informationa 2.75 (1.04) 2.57 (0.98) 2.99 (1.04) 2.68 ( 1.08)
Overall Mean (four items) 3.36 (0.84) 3.22 (0.84) 3.54 (0.83) 3.28 (0.92)
  1. Items should be interpreted on a scale of 1 = Never to 5 = Constantly
  2. aItem not included in analyses because it refers to a habit rather than a lateral reading strategy