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Table 5 Percentage of students in each condition who received a score of 4 (i.e., read laterally and drew the correct conclusion about the trustworthiness of the online content) on each problem type at pretest and posttest (N = 230; NDPI = 136, NControl = 94)

From: Improving college students’ fact-checking strategies through lateral reading instruction in a general education civics course

Problem type Pretest Posttest
DPI Control DPI Control
Photographic evidence 1.5%
(N = 135)
3.2%
(N = 93)
28.7%
(N = 136)
1.1%
(N = 94)
Sourcing evidence 1.5%
(N = 135)
1.1%
(N = 92)
14.2%
(N = 106a)
1.2%
(N = 84a)
Clickbait science and medical disinformation 2.2%
(N = 136)
2.2%
(N = 93)
24.3%
(N = 136)
0.0%
(N = 92)
Fake news 2.2%
(N = 135)
2.2%
(N = 93)
43.7%
(N = 135)
1.1%
(N = 92)
  1. a Smaller Ns for posttest Sourcing Evidence problem in problem set B at posttest are due to missing data or students’ responses stating that the YouTube video was unavailable