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Table 4 Mean score for students in each condition for each problem at pretest and posttest (N = 230; NDPI = 136, NControl = 94)

From: Improving college students’ fact-checking strategies through lateral reading instruction in a general education civics course

Problem type Pretest Posttest
DPI Control DPI Control
Photographic evidence 1.21 (0.52)
(N = 135)
1.41 (0.73)
(N = 93)
2.13 (1.34)
(N = 136)
1.09 (0.46)
(N = 94)
Sourcing evidence 1.27 (0.60)
(N = 135)
1.18 (0.51)
(N = 92)
1.83 (1.08)
(N = 106a)
1.27 (0.52)
(N = 84a)
Clickbait science and medical disinformation 1.18 (0.53)
(N = 136)
1.19 (0.65)
(N = 93)
2.15 (1.28)
(N = 136)
1.11 (0.35)
(N = 92)
Fake news 1.19 (0.54)
(N = 135)
1.12 (0.59)
(N = 93)
2.67 (1.34)
(N = 135)
1.13 (0.52)
(N = 92)
  1. Scores should be interpreted on a scale of 0 = made no effort, 1 = reacted to or described original content, 2 = indicated investigative intent, but did not search laterally, 3 = conducted a lateral search using online resources but failed to correctly evaluate trustworthiness, and 4 = conducted a lateral search and correctly evaluated trustworthiness
  2. aSmaller Ns for posttest Sourcing Evidence problem in problem set B at posttest are due to missing data or students’ responses stating that the YouTube video was unavailable