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Table 2 Problem type, online content, and correct trust assessment for problem sets A and B

From: Improving college students’ fact-checking strategies through lateral reading instruction in a general education civics course

Problem type Problem set Online content Correct trust assessment
Photographic evidence A Photograph on Imgur claiming to show mutated flowers near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan (https://imgur.com/gallery/BZWWx) Low (1)
Very Low (2)
B Photograph claiming to show Japanese Beetles attached to the roof of a dog’s mouth Moderate (3)
High (4)
Very High (5)
Sourcing evidence A Tweet from MoveOn.org stating that “2 out of 3 gun owners would be more likely to vote for a candidate that supported background checks” (https://twitter.com/MoveOn/status/666772893846675456?lang=en) Low (2)
Moderate (3)
High (4)
Ba YouTube video from the National Mining Association titled “The Importance of Advanced Coal Technologies” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqLb0DkFOeI) Low (2)
Moderate (3)
High (4)
Clickbait science and medical disinformation A Article published on BioNews titled “Majority of breast cancer patients do not need chemotherapy” (https://www.bionews.org.uk/page_136385) Moderate (3)
High (4)
Very High (5)
B Article from the NatureWorksBest Cancer Clinic about the “Baking Soda Cancer Treatment (Sodium Bicarbonate)” (https://natureworksbest.com/dr-tullio-simoncini-sodium-bicarbonate-cancer-treatment/) Low (1)
Very Low (2)
Fake news A Article published on newser titled “School District Arms Students with Rocks” (http://www.newser.com/story/256977/school-district-arms-students-with-rocks.html) Moderate (3)
High (4)
Very High (5)
B Article published on Big League Politics titled “Child’s Skull Found At Alleged Sex-Trafficking Bunker Area In Tucson” (https://bigleaguepolitics.com/breaking-childs-skull-found-at-alleged-sex-trafficking-bunker-in-tucson/) Low (1)
Very Low (2)
  1. aThe YouTube video used for the Sourcing Evidence problem in Set B at pretest was removed from YouTube after the pretest was administered. It was replaced with this video from the National Mining Association for the posttest