Skip to main content

Table 8 Claims and corresponding inference questions

From: You don’t have to tell a story! A registered report testing the effectiveness of narrative versus non-narrative misinformation corrections

Item Claim Inference question 1 Inference question 2 Inference question 3
Myth A Gastritis and stomach ulcers are caused by excessive stress Patients with stomach ulcers should avoid any type of stress How effective do you think relaxation techniques are in preventing gastritis? How likely is it that you would advise a friend or family member with stomach pains to reduce stress so they do not develop a stomach ulcer?
Myth B Women talk more than men At any given time, a woman is more likely to be speaking compared to a man In general, jobs that require a lot of talking are a more natural fit for women If you met a new male–female couple, how likely is it that the woman would talk more than the man?
Myth C Cracking your knuckles leads to arthritis People with a family history of arthritis should avoid cracking their knuckles Children should be taught not to crack their knuckles in order to reduce the risk of arthritis in later life How likely is it that you would advise a friend or family member with joint pains in their hands to avoid knuckle-cracking?
Myth D Delayed-onset muscle soreness is caused by buildup of lactic acid After strenuous exercise, a warm-down routine is essential because it breaks-down the lactic acid that contributes to delayed-onset muscle soreness How effective do you think supplements that help break down lactic acid are in preventing exercise-induced muscle soreness? How likely is it that you would advise a friend or family member with exercise-induced muscle soreness to avoid exercise activities that create lactic acid?
Fact A Stomach acid can dissolve razor blades Teaching teenagers that our stomach acid can dissolve razor blades would be an accurate and entertaining way to inform them about chemistry How effective do you think stomach acid is at dissolving razor blades? How likely is it that a razor blade would be totally intact after 48 h in stomach acid?
Fact B It is not safe to talk on landline telephones when there is a thunderstorm People should be discouraged from talking on landlines during thunderstorms to reduce their risk of being electrocuted Even when inside, people should opt to use mobile phones instead of landlines during a thunderstorm How likely is it that you would advise a friend or family member not to talk on a landline during a thunderstorm?
Fact C Dogs can smell cancer Sniffer dogs are a reliable and effective way to detect some cancers Sniffer dogs trained to detect cancer should be utilized more in hospitals To what extent would you trust the response of sniffer dog over a traditional screening test of lung cancer?
Fact D We are taller in the morning than in the evening If you are half an inch too short to go on a rollercoaster in the evening, how likely is it that you would be allowed to ride the following morning? If you want to seem taller, you should measure yourself first thing in the morning When doctors measure their patients, they should take into account the time of day
  1. All inference questions are measured on 11-point Likert scales from 0 (strongly disagree) to 10 (strongly agree)