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Table 3 Spatial skills used in seismic explorer

From: Focus on the notice: evidence of spatial skills’ effect on middle school learning from a computer simulation

Spatial skill Definition Curriculum activity SE visualizations
Spatial orientation Ability to find a spatial relationship in reference to a student’s body Use spatial orientation to interpret the maps from overhead to see height of mountains, depth of ocean, and depth of earthquakes within Earth
Mental Rotation Ability to quickly and precisely rotate either 2D or 3D figures Use mental rotation to interpret the motion of the 3D slice as the slice is pulled out of ground and rotated to show the side of the slice as well as rotated around the axis
Spatial visualization Ability to perform a complex spatial procedure with many steps Use spatial visualization between the key and the map to interpret magnitude and depth of earthquakes, topographical data on land and in ocean, and temporal data as earthquakes are embedded on the map