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Table 2 Results of linear mixed-effects analyses for each emotion measured by the PANAS scale, plus interaction with headline political concordance

From: Reliance on emotion promotes belief in fake news

  Enthusiastic Interested Determined Excited Inspired Alert Active
Fake 0.13c 0.04a 0.05a 0.14c 0.14c 0.05b 0.10c
Real 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.004 0.06b 0.01
Discernment − 0.10c − 0.02 − 0.04 − 0.14c − 0.14c 0.002 − 0.09c
Fake × concordant − 0.01 0.01 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.004 − 0.004 − 0.01
Discernment × concordant − 0.001 − 0.01 0.005 0.003 − 0.01 0.01 0.01
  Strong Proud Attentive Scared Afraid Upset Distressed
Fake 0.09c 0.10c 0.01 0.15c 0.13c 0.11c 0.12c
Real − 0.003 − 0.03 0.04a − 0.02 − 0.03 0.001 − 0.01
Discernment − 0.10c − 0.13c 0.03 − 0.17c − 0.16c − 0.11c − 0.12c
Fake × concordant − 0.002 − 0.03a − 0.02 − 0.04b − 0.03a − 0.03a − 0.03b
Discernment × concordant 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.01 − 0.01 0.01 0.0003
  Jittery Nervous Ashamed Guilty Irritable Hostile Positive Negative
Fake 0.12c 0.10c 0.12c 0.09c 0.11c 0.15c 0.13c 0.17c
Real − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.1 − 0.01 0.02 − 0.02
Discernment − 0.13c − 0.11c − 0.14c − 0.11c − 0.12c − 0.16c − 0.11c − 0.19c
Fake × concordant − 0.02 − 0.03a − 0.03b − 0.03a − 0.03b − 0.03a − 0.01 − 0.04b
Discernment × concordant 0.02 − 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
  1. Fixed effects in model include PANAS item score, type of news headline, partisanship, and political concordance. Random effects in model include by-item random slopes for the interaction between PANAS item score, concordance, and political party, and by-participant random slopes for the interaction between type of headline and concordance
  2. ap < 0.05
  3. bp < 0.01
  4. cp < 0.001