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Table 1 Results of linear mixed-effects analyses for each emotion measured by the PANAS scale

From: Reliance on emotion promotes belief in fake news

  Enthusiastic Interested Determined Excited Inspired Alert Active
Fake 0.13c 0.04 0.07b 0.15c 0.15c 0.05a 0.10c
Real 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.002 0.001 0.05a 0.01
Discernment − 0.11c − 0.02 − 0.06 − 0.14c − 0.15c − 0.01 − 0.09b
  Strong Proud Attentive Scared Afraid Upset Distressed
Fake 0.10c 0.11c 0.01 0.15c 0.13c 0.11c 0.12c
Real − 0.01 − 0.03 0.04a − 0.02 − 0.02 0.003 0.003
Discernment − 0.10b − 0.14c 0.03 − 0.17c − 0.15c − 0.11c − 0.11c
  Jittery Nervous Ashamed Hostile Guilty Irritable Positive Negative
Fake 0.11c 0.10c 0.12c 0.15c 0.09c 0.11c 0.13c 0.17c
Real − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.03 − 0.01 − 0.02 − 0.001 0.01 − 0.02
Discernment − 0.13c − 0.11b − 0.15c − 0.16c − 0.11b − 0.11b − 0.12c − 0.18c
  1. Fixed effects in model include PANAS item score, type of news headline, and interaction between PANAS score and type of news headline. Random effects include random intercepts for headline items and participants and by-item random slopes for PANAS scores and by-participant random slopes for type of news headline effects
  2. ap < 0.05
  3. bp < 0.01
  4. cp < 0.001