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Table 1 Spatial reorientation Cue Conflict results across multiple species

From: Uncertainty promotes information-seeking actions, but what information?

Citation Population Landmark (route) Geometric (survey)
Hermer and Spelke (1996);
Learmonth, Newcombe, Sheridan, and Jones (2008);
Lee and Spelke (2008)
Human children aged 18 to 24 months
Human children aged 3, 4, 5, or 6 years
Human children aged 4 years
No
Only in large environments
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Kelly and Bischof (2008) Human adults Yes No
Gouteux, Thinus-Blanc, and Vauclair (2001) Rhesus monkeys Yes No
Cheng (1986) Rats No Yes
Sovrano, Bisazza, and Vallortigara (2003) Fish No Yes
Kelly et al. (1998) Pigeons Yes No
Vallortigara, Pagni, and Sovrano (2004) Chicks ?? ??
  1. ??indicates that the results were inconclusive/mixed