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Table 5 Familiarity and believability ratings of false claims in pilot study

From: Can corrections spread misinformation to new audiences? Testing for the elusive familiarity backfire effect

Claim Familiarity Believability
M SD M SD
aFacebook is about to launch a “no swearing” campaign 1.52 0.95 2.69 1.07
Frequently wearing silk garments in direct contact with the skin can cause spontaneous lactation 1.53 0.96 3.65 0.98
a50,000 men were raped in South Africa last year 1.56 1.04 3.66 0.92
NASA is predicting six consecutive days of darkness in the Northern hemisphere in 2022 due to a rare astronomical event 1.57 1.07 3.25 1.06
aThe ratio of male:female CEOs in Manchester, UK is 1:1 1.60 0.94 3.59 1.03
aThe outer skin of a pineapple emits a dangerous toxin into the environment when it breaks down 1.60 1.02 2.19 1.19
The Cinderella Castle at Disneyland Florida can be disassembled during hurricanes 1.64 1.04 3.24 1.11
Fibers found in cow skin are now being added to Botox injections 1.76 1.09 2.85 1.00
“Camo” the German shepherd is the only dog in history to become an Officer of the British Empire 1.76 1.07 2.52 1.06
aHugh Hefner donated a fifth of his will to the Planned Parenthood charity 1.84 1.08 2.47 0.99
aPlacing a car battery on a cement floor can drain it and lead to its decay 1.90 1.28 2.74 1.39
The first artificial intelligence robot has been appointed as a teaching assistant in Japan 2.00 1.11 2.21 0.97
Nike footwear has to meet a quota of containing at least 20% recycled materials 2.10 1.17 3.41 1.32
The motor-vehicle accident rate regularly surges after the Super Bowl in the home state of the losing team 2.15 1.26 3.15 1.06
Bitcoin is used by the American Government as a way to keep track of online criminal activity 2.18 1.41 3.03 0.99
Wireless signals have a direct negative impact on plant growth 2.22 1.28 2.15 1.20
The “redhead gene” is becoming extinct 2.42 1.45 3.60 1.02
Drinking cold water can be bad for your health 2.43 1.48 3.81 1.32
Antibacterial mouthwash helps cure colds and sore throats 2.47 1.41 2.75 1.21
An at-home administration kit to screen for type-1 diabetes is currently being introduced 2.48 1.33 2.52 1.09
Hospitals are busier on full moons 3.10 1.62 2.93 1.36
St Bernard dogs once carried brandy barrels around their necks while rescuing people lost in the mountains 3.43 1.63 2.29 1.01
If you pluck a gray hair, more gray hairs will arrive in its place 3.53 1.54 2.27 0.91
Turkey meat makes you sleepy 3.97 1.58 3.22 0.98
  1. Note. aindicates claims used in Experiments 1–3