Skip to main content

Table 2 Contrasts run in Experiment 2

From: Can corrections spread misinformation to new audiences? Testing for the elusive familiarity backfire effect

dV/hypothesis Effect tested F(1,932) P
False-claim inference scores
 H1FISi: NE > FCOi Effect of correction vs. baseline 70.33 < .001a
 H2FISi: NE < COi Illusory truth effect 1.63 .202
 H3FISi: CFCi < COi Effect of claim+correction vs. claim-only 114.14 < .001a
 H4FISi: NE > CFCi Effect of claim+correction vs. baseline 88.08 < .001a
H1FISd: NE < FCOd Familiarity backfire effect 0.02 .895
 H2FISd: NE < COd Illusory truth effect 9.89 .002a
 H3FISd: CFCd < COd Effect of claim+correction vs. claim-only 11.64 < .001a
 H4FISd: NE > CFCd Effect of claim+correction vs. baseline 0.04 .850
 H5FIS: FCOi < FCOd Delay effect on correction 72.21 < .001a
 H6FIS: CFCi < CFCd Delay effect on claim+correction 88.43 < .001a
False-claim belief ratings
 H1FBRi: NE > FCOi Effect of correction vs. baseline 83.13 < .001a
 H2FBRi: NE < COi Illusory truth effect 3.75 .053b
 H3FBRi: CFCi < COi Effect of claim+correction vs. claim-only 87.36 < .001a
 H4FBRi: NE > CFCi Effect of claim+correction vs. baseline 126.87 < .001a
 H1FBRd: NE < FCOd Familiarity backfire effect 2.02 .155
 H2FBRd: NE < COd Illusory truth effect 14.09 < .001a
 H3FBRd: CFCd < COd Effect of claim+correction vs. claim-only 37.91 < .001a
 H4FBRd: NE > CFCd Effect of claim+correction vs. baseline 5.12 .024
 H5FBR: FCOi < FCOd Delay effect on correction 63.33 < .001a
 H6FBR: CFCi < CFCd Delay effect on claim+correction 85.50 < .001a
True-claim inference scores
 H1TISi: NE < FCOi Effect of affirmation vs. baseline 148.92 < .001a
 H2TISi: NE < COi Illusory truth effect 2.21 .137
 H3TISi: CFCi > COi Effect of claim+affirmation vs. claim-only 121.24 < .001a
 H1TISd: NE < FCOd Effect of affirmation vs. baseline 18.24 < .001a
 H2TISd: NE < COd Illusory truth effect 0.19 .666
 H3TISd: CFCd > COd Effect of claim+affirmation vs. claim-only 15.07 < .001a
 H5TIS: FCOi > FCOd Delay effect on affirmation 23.51 < .001a
 H6TIS: CFCi > CFCd Delay effect on claim+affirmation 72.57 < .001a
True-claim belief ratings
 H1TBRi: NE < FCOi Effect of affirmation vs. baseline 45.71 < .001a
 H2TBRi: NE < COi Illusory truth effect 3.79 .052b
 H3TBRi: CFCi > COi Effect of claim+affirmation vs. claim-only 108.75 < .001a
 H1TBRd: NE < FCOd Effect of affirmation vs. baseline 57.16 < .001a
 H2TBRd: NE < COd Illusory truth effect 6.49 .011a
 H3TBRd: CFCD > COd Effect of claim+affirmation vs. claim-only 25.31 < .001a
 H5TBR: FCOi > FCOd Delay effect on affirmation 0.38 .536
 H6TBR: CFCi > CFCd Delay effect on claim+affirmation 1.37 .243
  1. Note. Hypotheses are numbered H1–6 (primary hypothesis in bold; see text for details); subscripts FISi/d, TISi/d, FBRi/d, and TISi/d refer to false-claim and true-claim inference scores and belief ratings in immediate and delayed tests, respectively. Conditions are NE no-exposure; COi/d claim-only with immediate/delayed test; FCOi/d fact-check-only with immediate/delayed test; CFCi/d claim-plus-fact-check with immediate/delayed test. aindicates statistical significance after Holm-Bonferroni correction. bindicates an effect in the opposite of hypothesized direction