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Table 1 Disutility judgments. Task items and descriptive statistics (mean, SD, 25%ile, median, 75%ile)

From: Subjective (dis)utility of effort: mentally and physically demanding tasks

Item # Item Mean SD 25th Median 75th
   %ile   %ile
36. Cleaning bathrooms 21.70 13.20 14.75 20.00 30.00
31. Tutoring for SAT preparation 19.68 12.53 10.00 18.00 25.00
80. Help people complete IRS tax forms 19.08 11.55 13.00 15.00 21.00
2. Complete SAT-type essays 18.53 11.74 12.25 15.00 20.00
109. Vacuuming and dusting or mopping floors 17.51 13.89 10.00 14.00 20.00
97. Change flat tires on cars 17.18 12.61 10.00 15.00 20.00
108. Waiting in an airport for a delayed flight 17.05 12.92 10.00 15.00 20.00
89. Watching security cameras for a public park 16.89 10.99 10.00 15.00 20.00
12. Evaluating different dorm/apartment rental insurance policies 16.87 10.70 12.00 15.00 20.00
65. Determining the best allocation of investments for a retirement account (e.g., 401k) 16.53 14.13 10.00 15.00 20.00
46. Helping people choose the best credit card to match their financial situation and expected expenses. 16.17 8.44 10.00 15.00 20.00
106. Picking up trash along a park walking path 15.75 15.40 8.00 12.00 15.50
60. Trim hedges/bushes 15.59 9.46 10.00 14.00 20.00
115. Being a crossing guard at a school 15.29 10.37 10.00 15.00 20.00
58. Entering data into Excel spreadsheets 15.26 11.01 9.50 12.00 20.00
113. Canning vegetables 15.00 10.36 10.00 13.00 15.50
29. Proofreading company documents for style, grammar, and spelling 14.97 8.99 10.00 15.00 20.00
17. Washing cars 14.88 9.54 10.00 12.00 17.00
9. Weeding a garden 14.80 10.02 10.00 15.00 20.00
32. Filing patient charts/files in a doctor’s office 14.72 8.53 9.50 12.00 15.50
74. Serving on a jury for a product liability lawsuit 14.41 12.96 9.50 15.00 18.00
8. Painting an apartment living room 14.28 9.88 10.00 12.00 20.00
52. Read textbook on European history 14.22 11.28 8.00 14.00 20.00
7. Helping build a storage shed 14.20 8.48 10.00 13.00 20.00
114. Presenting a request to a local planning commission 14.11 9.43 10.00 12.00 20.00
37. Installing, setting up a new Wi-Fi router, and connecting various Internet-enabled devices (lights, thermostat, TV, etc.) 14.04 9.02 10.00 15.00 18.50
38. Assisting in a bird census (observing, classifying, and counting birds in a nature sanctuary) 13.81 11.15 9.50 11.00 20.00
124. Supervising children in a park 13.68 9.13 10.00 12.00 15.00
19. Driving a car for 200 miles on an interstate highway 13.63 11.89 9.00 12.00 18.00
15. Making a scrapbook for somebody you don’t know 13.54 7.70 10.00 13.00 16.00
26. Serving on a jury for a trial where the defendant is accused of assault 13.36 12.78 6.75 10.00 19.25
51. Making seating charts for a wedding 13.14 6.45 9.00 12.00 16.00
61. Creating a monthly budget based on expenses over the past year 13.11 9.76 9.00 10.00 15.00
98. Scanning print documents into the computer 13.03 9.32 8.50 10.00 15.00
121. Leading a classroom discussion on assigned readings 12.80 7.09 8.00 11.00 19.00
43. Re-finishing an old coffee table 12.69 7.86 9.00 10.00 15.00
5. Obedience training a dog 12.63 10.65 8.00 10.00 15.00
99. Write a short story 12.61 12.90 5.00 11.00 20.00
16. Assisting in an archeological “dig” 12.57 13.97 7.25 14.00 20.00
44. Designing and constructing a birdhouse 12.49 8.75 9.00 12.00 15.00
53. Assembling layouts for a print newsletter (photos, text, advertising) 12.45 7.33 8.00 10.00 15.00
35. Stuffing envelopes for a mass mailing 12.42 6.78 9.00 10.00 15.00
105. Being a referee at an amateur tennis competition 12.33 9.86 8.00 10.00 15.00
27. Rake leaves 12.18 7.58 8.00 10.00 15.00
70. Writing poetry 12.15 12.87 5.00 12.00 19.00
93. Listing items online for sale 12.15 8.27 8.00 10.00 15.00
96. Organizing computer files for backup 12.11 8.03 8.00 10.00 15.00
95. Planning the needed supplies and materials for a “poker night” for 100 people 11.98 8.08 8.00 10.00 15.00
50. Do laundry 11.85 10.02 8.00 10.00 14.00
125. Assembling IKEA-type furniture 11.85 11.63 8.00 10.50 15.00
3. Addressing invitations for a wedding 11.80 5.35 8.00 10.00 15.00
49. Entering phone/e-mail contact information into new smartphones 11.80 7.60 8.00 10.00 15.00
64. Presenting a book report to a book club 11.79 10.04 6.50 10.00 15.00
116. Using Photoshop to “restore” old photos 11.79 10.81 7.50 10.00 18.00
42. Filing books in a public library 11.55 8.22 8.00 10.00 15.00
24. Preparing/revising a résumé 11.49 8.24 8.00 10.00 15.00
112. Organizing photos and text for a website 11.35 7.05 8.00 10.00 15.00
11. Helping people move items in or out of a dorm room 11.31 8.25 8.00 10.00 15.00
45. Researching cellphone plans and prices 11.17 6.51 8.00 10.00 14.50
73. Making the schedule of games for an amateur sports tournament 11.07 6.41 8.00 10.00 15.00
118. Sorting clothes for a rummage sale 11.00 8.12 7.00 10.00 15.00
33. Researching prices and options for purchase of a computer printer 10.81 8.05 7.00 10.00 13.00
76. Creating PowerPoint slides for a presentation 10.79 7.16 7.50 10.00 15.00
79. Programming a robot for a 4th grade class demonstration 10.55 12.80 4.00 10.00 15.00
77. Using online resources for researching event venues for a celebration 10.55 6.41 7.50 10.00 15.00
120. Editing a video and adding audio tracks for a YouTube video 10.45 11.31 5.00 10.00 15.00
28. Assembling a custom desktop computer according to printed and video instructions 10.22 13.15 3.25 10.00 15.75
86. Writing thank you notes 10.13 7.73 5.00 10.00 15.00
54. Hang posters and pictures on walls 9.98 6.65 7.00 10.00 12.00
85. Grading 4th grade math problem sheets (e.g., addition/subtraction problems) 9.96 6.37 8.00 10.00 12.00
91. Riding as a passenger for 200 miles on an interstate highway 9.92 12.24 3.25 9.00 14.75
23. Planning a course for a 10K charity walk 9.88 7.75 7.00 10.00 15.00
84. Sketching still life scenes 9.61 11.93 1.50 9.00 15.00
78. Reading poetry 9.54 11.70 4.50 10.00 14.50
34. Dog walking 9.48 6.44 7.00 9.50 14.50
41. Planning a dinner party for 8 people (menu, grocery list, etc.) 9.44 7.98 5.50 10.00 12.00
123. Planning a vacation (i.e., comparing prices and routes for airline travel and hotels) 9.37 10.20 5.00 10.00 15.00
1. Completing a paint-by-numbers project 9.01 10.08 5.00 10.00 12.00
57. Bird watching 8.84 10.03 .00 10.00 15.00
14. Installing applications on a smartwatch 8.61 9.06 2.50 8.00 10.00
104. Reading a biography about Franklin D. Roosevelt 8.40 10.76 .00 7.00 13.50
107. Watch a documentary on the history of Afghanistan 8.32 10.58 .00 10.00 12.00
63. Attending a lecture on art appreciation 7.93 11.22 .00 8.00 15.00
122. Attending a political debate (e.g., for the governor’s office or for a senator) 7.70 14.25 .00 8.00 15.00
6. Reading Time/Newsweek/US News & World Report magazines 7.64 8.62 .00 9.00 11.50
102. Assembling a desk clock kit from printed instructions with small tools and a soldering iron 7.46 9.48 .00 9.00 12.00
Minimum Wage Boundary
59. Watching TED Talks on high energy physics 7.00 13.83 −.50 7.00 11.00
55. Attending a lecture on film history 6.96 10.24 .00 8.00 12.00
40. Watch a documentary on the fashion industry 6.79 9.44 .00 8.00 10.00
92. Watch a documentary on detecting art fraud 6.45 11.50 −2.00 7.00 11.50
56. Judging an audition for a talent show 6.29 10.60 .00 6.00 10.00
72. Solving Rubik’s Cubes 6.15 10.54 .00 8.00 12.50
18. Read The New York Times 6.00 8.21 .00 7.00 10.00
111. Watch a documentary on the Flint, Michigan water crisis 5.85 10.17 .00 5.00 10.00
13. Creating a playlist of songs for a party/event 5.62 8.25 .00 5.00 10.00
100. Playing chess 5.29 11.16 −1.50 5.00 10.00
47. Assembling a complex jigsaw picture puzzle 5.25 8.70 .00 5.00 10.00
69. Completing crossword puzzles 5.07 7.06 .00 5.00 10.00
66. Playing bridge 4.96 7.97 .00 5.00 10.00
30. Completing Sudoku puzzles 4.74 8.69 .00 5.00 10.00
22. Watch a documentary on the Large Hadron Collider 4.58 7.31 .00 5.00 10.00
110. Read Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time 4.49 9.95 −.50 5.00 10.00
20. Playing Solitaire on the computer 4.41 8.91 −1.00 5.00 8.00
10. Playing Scrabble 4.07 8.55 −1.00 5.00 8.00
4. Play Bingo 3.77 7.25 −1.50 5.00 9.50
48. Searching for ancestry information (e.g., looking up your distant relatives on Ancestry.com) 3.65 10.45 −5.00 2.50 10.00
75. Attending the opera 3.50 16.52 − 5.50 5.00 13.00
87. Attending a workshop on financial literacy (for example, credit cards, mortgages, life insurance, retirement) 3.22 14.45 −6.00 .00 10.00
81. Playing Trivial Pursuit 2.93 7.71 .00 1.00 8.00
88. Learning how to juggle 2.79 10.45 −4.50 .00 8.00
68. Playing a Tetris-type game 2.76 6.57 −1.00 .00 8.00
103. Attending a health and wellness workshop for planning a personal exercise program 2.59 10.54 − 4.50 .00 10.00
39. Playing Jeopardy! with other college students 2.50 9.09 −4.00 .00 9.50
94. Learning how to control a flying drone 2.37 10.98 −5.50 2.00 3.00
119. Playing strategy games such as Risk or Settlers of Catan 2.28 8.41 −2.00 .00 8.00
101. Read mystery novel 2.27 10.17 − 2.50 .00 8.00
71. Watching TED Talks on bioengineering (e.g., new portable diagnostic devices, tissue engineered organs) 2.03 9.57 −4.00 .00 10.00
67. Attending a lecture on artificial intelligence 1.96 10.43 −9.00 .00 5.00
117. Watching TED Talks on motivation and learning 1.96 8.32 −3.00 .00 10.00
21. Watching TED Talks on human relationships 1.80 7.18 − 3.00 .00 8.00
83. Visiting an art museum .26 10.65 −7.50 .00 8.00
62. Attending a play by Shakespeare .24 11.93 −8.50 .00 9.00
90. Attending a classical music concert .20 15.33 −10.00 .00 10.00
82. Playing pool (billiards) .16 6.90 −5.00 .00 5.00
25. Watching TED Talks on new technology advances .06 7.46 −5.00 .00 6.50