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Table 1 Average number of explanations of each type by group (study 1)

From: Removing opportunities to calculate improves students’ performance on subsequent word problems

Type of explanation Calculable
(N = 16)
Mean (SD)
Non-calculable
(N = 16)
Mean (SD)
Group comparison
Attempted to solve 1.81 (1.28) 1.06 (1.06) t(30) = 1.81
p = .081
Cohen’s d = 0.64
Describing steps 0.81 (0.75) 0.63 (0.81) t(30) = 0.68
p = .501
Cohen’s d = 0.23
Explaining mathematical relationships 1.06 (1.00) 0.94 (1.00) t(30) = 0.354
p = .726
Cohen’s d = 0.12
  1. Note. Scores ranged from 0 to 3, with 3 meaning a student produced an explanation of that type for each of the three problems