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Table 1 Participant characteristics with means (SD) for each grouping variable

From: Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: working memory and inhibitory control

  Musician Non-musician
Monolingual Bilingual Monolingual Bilingual
n 45 36 36 36
Age (years) 21.5 (3.1) 22.5 (3.2) 22.6 (2.6) 21.5 (2.3)
SES (mother’s education)a 3.4 (1.1) 3.4 (1.4) 2.7 (1.3) 3.4 (1.3)
Father’s educationa 3.2 (1.4) 3.6 (1.6) 2.5 (1.9) 3.9 (1.2)
Parents’ incomeb 6.1 (2.0) 5.4 (2.4) 6.5 (2.3) 5.4 (2.7)
K-BIT-2 vocabulary (raw) 51.0 (3.4) 49.2 (3.6) 49.7 (4.4) 45.0 (4.4)
K-BIT-2 matrices (standardized) 103 (22.3) 105 (14.7) 104 (15.2) 101 (12.5)
  1. aEducation was in the range of 0–5 (0 = high school not completed; 1 = high school diploma; 2 = some college; 3 = college diploma; 4 = Bachelor’s degree; 5 = graduate or professional degree)
  2. bParents’ income was in the range of 1–11 (1 ≤ $14,900; 2 = $15,000–29,000; 3 = $30,000–44,900; 4 = $45,000–59,900; 5 = $60,000–79,900; 6 = $80,000–99,900; 7 = $100,000–129,000; 8 = $130,000–159,000; 9 = $160,000–179,000; 10 = $180,000–199,9000; 11≥ $200,000)
  3. SES socioeconomic status