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Table 2 Percentage of students selecting each answer choice for the three questions for Centrality vs. Variability gesture condition

From: Exploring the practicing-connections hypothesis: using gesture to support coordination of ideas in understanding a complex statistical concept

Answer choice Percentage students by condition
Centrality (n = 47) Variability (n = 53)
Question 1. Based on the description of the study, what would you conclude about the effect of eating chocolate on test performance?
 A. I am fairly certain there is an effect 49 30
 B. I’m not sure—I would need more information 47 60
 C. I’m fairly certain there is not an effect 4 11
Question 2. Which of the following additional pieces of information would be useful for determining if chocolate had an effect on test performance? (select all that apply.)
 A. The mean test scores for each group 74 70
 B. The standard deviation of test scores within each group 66 62
 C. A rating of how much each participant likes chocolate 40 23
 D. A list of the exact test items that were used 21 36
 E. More information about what kind of chocolate was used 15 19
Question 3. If you could only choose one, which of the following additional pieces of information would be most useful for determining if chocolate had an effect on test performance?
 A. The mean test scores for each group 60 36
 B. The standard deviation of test scores within each group 21 40
 C. A rating of how much each participant likes chocolate 11 13
 D. A list of the exact test items that were used 2 6
 E. More information about what kind of chocolate was used 6 4