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Table 4 Model parameters for additional items

From: Teachers’ gestures and students’ learning: sometimes “hands off” is better

Fixed effects Estimate SE z value p
 Intercept 0.57 0.30 1.87 0.06
 Pretest 2.27 0.68 3.33 < .001
Random effects Variance SD   
 Participant 5.11 2.26   
  1. Posttest ~ Pretest + (1|participant). SE standard error, SD standard deviation