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Table 3 Model parameters for the best-fitting model for translation items

From: Teachers’ gestures and students’ learning: sometimes “hands off” is better

Fixed effects Estimate SE z value p
 Intercept 3.21 0.66 4.87 < .001
 Gesture to equations 1.48 0.66 2.26 0.02
 Age 0.18 0.08 2.29 0.02
 Output 0.31 0.47 0.67 0.51
 Element 1.99 0.28 7.15 < .001
 Pretest 1.30 0.29 4.50 < .001
Random effects Variance SD   
 Participant 14.54 3.81   
 Element 2.10 1.45   
 Output 3.59 1.89   
 Item 0.25 0.50   
  1. Posttest ~ Gesture to Equations + Age + Output + Element + Pretest + (1|item) + ((1 + Element + Output)|participant). SE standard error, SD standard deviation