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Table 2 Model parameters for the best-fitting model for graph-encoding items

From: Teachers’ gestures and students’ learning: sometimes “hands off” is better

Fixed effects Estimate SE z value p
 Intercept 0.95 0.76 1.24 0.21
 Element 1.44 0.27 5.40 < .001
Random effects Variance SD   
 Item 0.42 0.65   
 Participant 1.08 1.04   
  1. Posttest ~ Element + (1|item) + (1|participant). SE standard error, SD standard deviation