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Table 1 Average proportion correct at pretest and posttest in each gesture condition and for each type of assessment item

From: Teachers’ gestures and students’ learning: sometimes “hands off” is better

   Gesture (G) condition
No G to equation G to equation
No G to graph
(N = 19)
G to graph
(N = 20)
No G to graph
(N = 20)
G to graph
(N = 23)
Item type Number of items Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Equation encoding 2 .88 .99 .88 .95 .86 .95 .83 .98
Graph encoding 2 .30 .51 .25 .61 .21 .48 .26 .55
Translation 8 .26 .64 .35 .76 .37 .59 .35 .64
Identify terms in equation 1 .11 .63 .15 .60 .15 .63 .22 .65
Describe relation in words 1 .13 .55 .20 .65 .15 .45 .09 .65
  1. Note: For each item, two problem elements were coded (slope and intercept).