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Table 1 Means (and standard deviations) of percentage heart rate increase following exercise and non-exercise activities, as well as bivariate correlations between percentage heart rate increase and memory performance, for women, men, and combined

From: Evidence for improved memory from 5 minutes of immediate, post-encoding exercise among women

  Women Men Combined
Experiment 1
 Post-learning activity
  Exercise
   Mean HR change 32% (22%) 21% (24%) 27% (23%)
   Correlation with memory r(8) = 0.05 r(7) = −0.10 r(17) = 0.04
p = 0.88 p = 0.80 p = 0.86
  Non-exercise
   Mean HR change 9% (14%) 4% (11%) 6% (13%)
   Correlation with memory r(8) = 0.09 r(7) = 0.01 r(17) = −0.07
p = 0.82 p = 0.98 p = 0.79
  Collapsed across activity
   Mean HR change 21% (21%) 12% (20%) 16% (21%)
   Correlation with memory r(18) = 0.44 r(16) = −0.02 r(36) = 0.21
p = 0.05 p = 0.93 p = 0.20
 Pre-learning activity
  Exercise
   Mean HR change 40% (18%) 25% (18%) 32% (19%)
   Correlation with memory r(7) = −0.29 r(7) = 0.28 r(16) = 0.03
p = 0.46 p = 0.47 p = 0.92
  Non-exercise
   Mean HR change 9% (14%) 5% (11%) 7% (12%)
   Correlation with memory r(7) = −0.13 r(7) = −0.41 r(16) = −0.19
p = 0.74 p = 0.28 p = 0.44
  Collapsed across activity
   Mean HR change 24% (22%) 15% (18%) 20% (20%)
   Correlation with memory r(16) = −0.36 r(16) = 0.001 r(34) = −0.17
p = 0.14 p > 0.99 p = 0.32
Experiment 3
  Exercise
   Mean HR change 51% (30%) 52% (27%) 52% (29%)
   Correlation with memory r(33) = 0.29 r(22) = −0.01 r(57) = 0.19
p = 0.096 p = 0.96 p = 0.16
  Non-exercise
   Mean HR change 10% (22%) 11% (16%) 10% (20%)
   Correlation with memory r(35) = 0.19 r(18) = −0.43 r(55) = −0.01
p = 0.25 p = 0.057 p = 0.96
Experiment 4
  Exercise
   Mean HR change 44% (22%) 24% (30%) 40% (25%)
   Correlation with memory r(27) = 0.03 r(6) = −0.48 r(35) = −0.02
p = 0.86 p = 0.23 p = 0.92
  Non-exercise
   Mean HR change 5% (12%) 7% (19%) 6% (14%)
   Correlation with memory r(27) = 0.17 r(7) = 0.14 r(36) = 0.16
p = 0.38 p = 0.71 p = 0.35
  Collapsed across activity
   Mean HR change 25% (26%) 15% (26%) 22% (26%)
   Correlation with memory r(56) = 0.16 r(15) = −0.17 r(73) = 0.10
p = 0.22 p = 0.51 p = 0.38
  1. Correlation statistics did not substantively change when mood self-reports of change in valence and arousal were partialled out. Experiment 3 involved repeated measures, rendering observations in the exercise and non-exercise conditions non-independent of each other; thus, we do not collapse across activity for this experiment. HR heart rate