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Table 2 Stimuli for Experiments 4 and 5

From: The effect of abstract versus concrete framing on judgments of biological and psychological bases of behavior

Behavior Text version
Concrete Abstract
1. Having extra-marital affairs Douglas has been regularly sleeping with his ex-girlfriend at a local hotel; he has created an elaborate lie to tell his wife, claiming that he has to spend evenings and weekends away from the house doing extra work for his unreasonable boss. Some men have extra-marital affairs; they have an ongoing sexual relationship with someone other than their spouse, typically without their spouse’s knowledge, and they frequently engage in deceptive behaviors to cover up these actions.
2. Having a great memory for names Denise memorized the names of all of the students in her 85-person lecture course within the first couple of class meetings and she spent only a little extra time outside of class reviewing their names and photographs. Some people have a great memory for names; they can learn to match a large number of names to faces under conditions of limited time, all without seeming to undergo an extraordinary amount of mental effort.
3. Being nervous in social settings Cheryl gets nervous at all of the company dinners and parties she is expected to attend with her colleagues; she worries about whether she sounds intelligent and whether her dress, hair, and makeup look right. Some people are nervous in social settings; when they are placed in any situation in which they are expected to mingle with other people, including people they already know, they get worried and anxious.
4. Staying calm during a competitive situation Allen stays calm during his figure skating performance in international competition; he lands all of his difficult jumps perfectly while under tremendous pressure to do well on behalf of his country. Some people stay calm during a competitive situation; they are able to perform well despite being under a considerable amount of pressure to live up to the expectations of others and themselves.
5. Having difficulty focusing on tasks for a long time Raymond has difficulty focusing on writing the sales presentations required by his job; he repeatedly stops working to chat with co-workers, shop online, and watch viral YouTube videos. Some people have difficulty focusing on tasks for a long time; their attention wanders and they engage in alternative activities that do not advance their work on the task at hand.
6. Drinking too much Martin frequently drinks too many tequila shots; he knows that his system can really only handle one per hour, but always drinks at least three times that amount, vomits, and then has terrible hangovers the next day. Some people drink too much; they knowingly ingest more alcohol than their digestive systems can adequately process in a short span of time, and do so more frequently than is advisable for maximum wellbeing.
7. Tending to be optimistic about the future Sharon tends to be optimistic about her career trajectory; she anticipates that her own performance will be excellent and expects to get good job assignments and eventual promotions. Some people tend to be optimistic about the future; they approach the world with positive expectations about what events will happen in the future and how those events will unfold.
8. Being very driven to achieve Thomas is very intent on becoming a top executive at his corporation; he works 18-h days and has never missed a work meeting, although he has missed many of his children’s sports games and recitals. Some people tend to be very driven to achieve; this involves putting the vast majority of their time, effort, and mental focus on achieving their goals and paying relatively less attention to other areas of life.