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Table 8 Results of the statistical analyses of gender errors with old items observed in Session 2 (blocked/random-order sentence production), the first production task in Session 3 (blocked/random-order sentence production), the second production task in Session 3, and in the test session (random-order sentence production)

From: Language play facilitates language learning: Optimizing the input for gender-like category induction

  Session 2a Session 3 (1st)b Session 3 (2nd)c Session 4d
χ 2(1) p χ 2(1) p χ 2(1) p χ 2(1) p
Blocking 1.75 0.186 20.99 0.001 *** 31.16 0.001 *** 21.70 0.001 ***
Rhyme 3.39 0.066 (*) 1.05 0.306 1.94 0.164 5.27 0.022 *
Melody 0.37 0.544 0.76 0.383 3.57 0.059 (*) 8.11 0.004 **
Rhyme&Melody 1.92 0.166 5.34 0.021 * 16.68 0.001 *** 27.02 0.001 ***
Blocking: Rhyme 0.13 0.722 0.84 0.359 0.72 0.395 0.42 0.516
Blocking:Melody 0.23 0.634 0.01 0.960 0.51 0.476 1.64 0.201
Blocking:Rhyme&Melody 0.31 0.580 5.33 0.021 * 3.82 0.051 (*) 6.16 0.013 *
  1. (*) p < 0.08, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. a Full model’s AIC: 5090.3, BIC: 5206.6
  3. b Full model’s AIC: 4668.0, BIC: 4784.3
  4. c Full model’s AIC: 4112.3, BIC: 4228.6
  5. d Full model’s AIC: 2285.3, BIC: 2389.8