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Table 11 Gender assignment regularities for german, as identified by Wegener (1995)

From: Language play facilitates language learning: Optimizing the input for gender-like category induction

  Regularity Examples Exceptions
1 When unmarked, nouns ending in -e are feminine. Hose (trousers.F), Jacke (jacket.F), Nase (nose.F) Auge (eye.N), Ende (end.N), Löwe (lion.M) Käse (cheese.M)
2 When unmarked, monosyllabic nouns are masculine. Kopf (head.M), Fuß (foot.M), Schrank (closet.M) Hand (hand.F), Bein, (leg.N)
3 When unmarked, nouns ending in -el, -en, -er are masculine. Löffel (spoon.M), Rücken (back.M), Finger (finger.M) Messer (knife.N), Schulter (shoulder.F), Pendel (pendulum.N) Becken (basin.N, also pelvis.N)
4 The grammatical gender of labels for male and female creatures is masculine and feminine, respectively. Mutter (mother.F), Vater (father.M) Mädchen (see (2))
5 In the case of derivational nouns, the derivational suffix determines the noun’s gender. Krank-heit (ill-ness.F), Heiz-ung (heat-ing. F/heat-er. F) Ergeb-nis (result.N), Erkenn-t-nis (insight.F)
  1. All examples and exceptions listed with regularities 1 to 3 and 5 are taken from Wegener (1995), except “Löffel”, “Messer”, and “Schrank”