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Table 4 The gamma correlation between accuracy and confidence before and after discussion for each class

From: Why does peer instruction benefit student learning?

ClassPre-gammaPost-gammaSD of differencePaired t test comparing pre to postaCohen’s d
Cognitive Psych (Psych) 20150.600.790.52t (18) = 1.22, p = 0.240.29
Cognitive Psych (Psych) 20170.270.400.74t (37) = 2.29, p = 0.020.38
Decision Making (Ed Psych) 20160.360.560.46t (22) = 3.21, p = 0.0040.47
Decision Making (Ed Psych) 20170.470.440.46t (33) = 0.24, p = 0.81− 0.04
Learning Theories (Ed Psych) 20160.180.280.45t (11) = 1.57, p = 0.140.23
Learning Theories (Ed Psych) 20180.430.370.37t (13) = 0.58, p = 0.57− 0.16
Overall0.400.480.55t (139) = 2.98, p = 0.0030.24
  1. aGamma correlation requires that learners have variance in both confidence and correctness before and after discussion. Degrees of freedom are reduced because many students did not have requisite variation