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Table 1 Ways to chunk visually presented information. Letter identities can represent different colors, shapes, atomic identities, or any other property

From: Visual chunking as a strategy for spatial thinking in STEM

String 1M Z K3 unitsNot compressible
String 2M K K3 unitsCompressible to 2 units via domain-general redundancy
String 3M ZK3 unitsPotentially compressible to 2 units via spatial grouping, although this grouping does not necessarily help memory performance if no memory association exists between the letters
String 4M OK3 unitsCompressible to 2 units via spatial grouping and semantic link between O and K available to experts through expert chunking
String 5M KK3 unitsCompressible to 2 units via domain-general redundancy and spatial grouping