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Table 1 Descriptive statistics by course for T1 and T2

From: Beyond small-scale spatial skills: Navigation skills and geoscience education

  GIS Mean (SD) COM Mean (SD)
T1 T2 T1 T2
Within-route 20.27 (11.47) 15.16 (8.86) 26.04 (13.73) 23.69 (10.34)
Between-route 43.61 (11.71) 35.16 (15.13) 47.58 (16.00) 46.13 (14.44)
Model-building 0.5277 (0.29) 0.6393 (0.28) 0.4503 (0.27) 0.4487 (0.29)
MRT 34.13 (21.79) 42.53 (22.09) 22.76 (17.93) 23.46 (23.63)
SWM 28.57 (7.31) 30.90 (7.44) 22.98 (9.32) 26.57 (9.72)
WRAT 47.98 (4.32) 46.26 (6.48)
PSAS 4.90 (0.75) 4.64 (0.75)
PVAS 4.68 (0.86) 4.49 (1.05)
  1. COM Communication, GIS Geographic Information Systems, MRT Mental Rotation Test, PSAS Philadelphia Spatial Ability Scale, PVAS Philadelphia Verbal Ability Scale, SD standard deviation, SWM Spatial Working Memory, T1 pre test (start of academic semester), T2 post test (end of academic semester), WRAT Wide Range Achievement Test