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Fig. 5 | Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications

Fig. 5

From: Beyond small-scale spatial skills: Navigation skills and geoscience education

Fig. 5

Change in large-scale navigation and small-scale mental rotation tasks, grouped by participant course. a Within-route pointing error. b Between-route pointing error. c Model-building (R2 value). d Mental rotation skill. Overall, GIS participants significantly outperformed COM participants and there was significant improvement in both groups from T1 to T2. In addition, GIS participants improved at a faster rate than COM participants on all measures except the within-route pointing task. Error bars reflect ±1 standard error of the mean. COM Communication, GIS Geographic Information Systems, T1 pre test (start of academic semester), T2 post test (end of academic semester). For within- and between- pointing errors, a low value (error) indicates high accuracy

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