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Table 2 Mean scores on content pretests and content posttests (multiple choice components (MC), short answer components (SA), and overall content scores (OC)) by group (control vs. experimental (Betty)) for Experiments 1–3

From: The interrelationship between concepts about agency and students’ use of teachable-agent learning technology

  MC Pre MC Post SA Pre SA Post OC Pre OC Post
Experiment 1
 Control (N = 51) 15.30 (5.95) 16.81 (7.54) 1.46 (1.45) 1.72 (1.62) 0.04 (.81) − 0.02 (.86)
 Betty (N = 57) 15.11 (5.71) 17.60 (6.49) 1.20 (1.54) 1.51 (1.51) − 0.05 (.78) 0.02 (.79)
Experiment 2
 Control (N = 39) 5.51 (2.20) 6.63 (2.47) 2.37 (1.55) 2.08 (1.86) − 0.14 (.67) − 0.27 (.77)
 Betty (N = 97) 6.77 (2.51) 7.82 (2.77) 2.92 (2.07) 3.07 (2.32) 0.02 (.94) 0.07 (.91)
Experiment 3
 Betty (N = 75) 5.28 (2.23) 6.68 (2.21) 3.16 (2.18) 4.62 (2.87) 0.00 (.84) 0.00 (.90)
  1. Standard deviations appear in parentheses after means. The overall content (OC) scores reflect averages of students’ standardized scores on the multiple choice and short answer components