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Table 3 Phonetic characteristics of nonwords used in Experiments 2-4

From: Remembering that big things sound big: Sound symbolism and associative memory

  Large nonwords Small nonwords  
Mean SD Mean SD p value
Number of vowels 1.64 0.50 2.07 0.92 0.14
Proportion “large” vowels 0.86 0.23 0.00 0.00 <0.001
Proportion “small” vowels 0.00 0.00 0.74 0.29 <0.001
Number of consonants 3.07 0.62 2.50 0.76 <0.001
Proportion voiced consonants 0.68 0.35 0.60 0.32 0.54
Proportion unvoiced consonants 0.32 0.35 0.40 0.32 0.54
Proportion plosives 0.46 0.13 0.20 0.22 0.001
Proportion fricatives 0.14 0.20 0.41 0.37 0.03
Proportion affricates 0.02 0.09 0.02 0.09 >0.99
Proportion nasals 0.12 0.18 0.12 0.20 0.94
Proportion approximants 0.24 0.17 0.25 0.20 0.93
Proportion consonant clusters 0.32 0.24 0.14 0.16 0.03
Proportion vowel clusters 0.07 0.18 0.07 0.18 >0.99
Onset position voiced consonants 0.27 0.16 0.09 0.15 0.006
Onset position unvoiced consonants 0.05 0.12 0.08 0.17 0.53
Onset position plosives 0.20 0.16 0.02 0.09 0.001
Onset position fricatives 0.09 0.19 0.10 0.17 0.93
Onset position affricates 0.02 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.33
Onset position nasals 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.09 0.33
Onset position approximants 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.09 0.33
Onset position consonant clusters 0.15 0.16 0.07 0.14 0.18
Onset position vowel clusters 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 n/a
  1. Note: consonants were defined at the phonemic not orthographic level (e.g.,/ch/was counted as a single consonant). n.a. not applicable