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Table 2 Examples of spatial and non-spatial language co-produced with gestures

From: Spatial analogies pervade complex relational reasoning: Evidence from spontaneous gestures

  Non-spatial language Spatial language
Factor reference “First factor” “External variable”
“Certain variable”
“Factor A”
Factor change “Increase” “Rise”
“Decrease” “Go up”
“Change” “Go down”
Causal relation “Influences” “Rebounds”
“Causes” “Leads to”
“Effects” “Impacts”
Whole system “Self-correcting” “Negative loop”
“Regulate each other” “Seesaw”
“Constant increasing” “Building on each other”